[Frontiers in Bioscience 2, c30-39, December 15, 1997]
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CAVEAT LECTOR




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THE IN OVO CARCINOGENEICITY ASSAY (IOCA): A REVIEW OF AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH FOR RESEARCH ON CARCINOGENESIS AND CARCINOGENICITY TESTING

Harald Enzmann1 and Klaus D. Brunnemann2

1Bayer AG, Institute of Toxicology, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany and 2American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA

Received 7/21/97 Accepted 11/14/97

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction: avian models of carcinogenicity
3. Carcinogen-induced cellular changes in embryonic avian liver
3.1 Induction of adenoid formations by carcinogens
3.2 Carcinogen-induced hepatocellular nuclear enlargement
3.3 Quantification of carcinogen-induced nuclear enlargement
3.4 Significance of the carcinogen-induced nuclear enlargement

4. Carcinogen induced focal hepatic lesions in the in ovo carcinogenicity assay (IOCA)
4.1 Induction of focal hepatic lesions in avian embryonic liver
4.2 Experimental induction of focal hepatic lesions in rodents
4.3 Focal hepatic lesions as end points in carcinogenicity testing

5. Focal hepatic lesions as endpoints in carcinogenicity testing
Induction of damage to mitochondrial DNA in ovo
5.1 Mitochondrial DNA as target for genotoxic chemicals
5.2 Studies of mitochondrial DNA in carcinogen-exposed embryonic turkey liver

6. Perspectives of the IOCA
7. Acknowledgements
8. References
9. Entire manuscript

Key words: Carcinogenicity, toxicology, non-animal method, carcinogenesis, preneoplasia, liver, mitochondrial DNA, short-term-test