[Frontiers in Bioscience 2, d578-587, December 1, 1997]
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HIV-1 NUCLEAR IMPORT: IN SEARCH OF A LEADER

Michael I. Bukrinsky1 and Omar K. Haffar2

1The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, 2Cytokine Networks Inc., 101 Elliott Ave West, Suite 428, Seattle, WA 98119

Received 11/7/97 Accepted 11/14/97

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Cellular Nuclear Import Machinery
4. HIV-1 Nuclear Import
4.1. Role of active nuclear import in the HIV-1 life cycle
4.2. Viral proteins that regulate nuclear import
4.2.1. Matrix Antigen (MA)
4.2.2. Integrase (IN)
4.2.3. Viral Protein R (Vpr)

5. Nuclear Import as a Drug Target
5.1. Compounds which inactivate viral NLSs
5.2. Compounds which bind to karyopherin alpha
5.3. Perspectives for development of nuclear import inhibitors as anti-HIV drugs.

6. Summary and Conclusions
7. Acknowledgment
8. References
9. Entire manuscript

Key words: Karyopherin, HIV-1, Vpr, Matrix antigen, Nuclear import, Anti-retroviral therapy, Preintegration complex

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