[Frontiers in Bioscience 2, d197-206, May 1, 1997]
Reprints
PubMed
CAVEAT LECTOR



Table of Conents
 Previous Section   Next Section

T CELL SIGNALING OF MACROPHAGE FUNCTION IN INFLAMMATORY DISEASE

Robert D. Stout1 and Jill Suttles2

Program in Immunology, Departments of Microbiology1 and Biochemistry2, James H. Quillen College of Medicine at East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA

Received 4/15/97; Accepted 4/18/97; On-line 5/1/97

9. REFERENCES

1 A. O'Garra, & K. Murphy: T-cell subsets in autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol 5,880-6 (1993)

2 H. Wekerle: Immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol 13,197-204 (1991)

3 D. Mason, & D. Fowell: T-cell subsets in autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol 4,728-32 (1992)

4 C.S. Raine, U. Traugott, & S.H. Stone: Suppression of chronic allergic encephalomyelitis: relevance to multiple sclerosis. Science 201,445-8 (1978)

5 R. Martin, H.F. McFarland, & D.E. McFarlin: Immunological aspects of demyelinating diseases. Ann Rev Immunol 10,153-87 (1992)

6 K. Gerritse, R.J. Noelle, A. Aruffo, J. Ledbetter, J.D. Laman, W.J.A. Boersma, & E. Claassen: CD40:CD40 ligand interactions in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93,2499-504 (1996)

7 I. Huitanga, S.R. Ruuls, S. Jung, N. Van Rooijen, H.-P. Hartung, & C.D. Dijkstra: Macrophages in T cell line-mediated demyelinating and chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis in Lewis rats. Clin Exp Immunol 100,344-51 (1995)

8 J. Bauer, T. Sminia, F.G. Wouterlood, & C.D. Dijkstra: Phagocytic activity of macrophages and microglial cells during the course of acute and chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci Res 38,365-75 (1994)

9 S.D. Miller, & W.J. Karpus: The immunopathogenesis and regulation of T cell-mediated demyelinating diseases. Immunol Today 15,356-61 (1994)

10 R. Manetti, P. Parronchi, M.-G. Giudizi, M.-P. Piccinni, E. Maggi, G. Trinchieri, & S. Romagnani: Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (interleukin 12) induces T helper type 1-specific immune responses and inhibits the development of IL-4-producing Th cells. J Exp Med 177,1199-204 (1993)

11 F.W. Fitch, M.D. McKisic, D.W. Lancki, & T.F. Gajewski: Differential regulation of murine T lymphocyte subsets. Annu Rev Immunol 11,29-48 (1993)

12 T.R. Mosmann, & R.L. Coffman: Heterogeneity of cytokine secretion patterns and functions of helper T cells. Adv Immunol 46,111-48 (1989)

13 R.D. Stout, & J. Suttles: T cell signaling of macrophage activation. Cell contact-dependent and cytokine signals. R. G. Landes Company; Springer-Verlag, Austin, (1995)

14 E. De Maeyer, & J. De Maeyer-Guignard: Interferon-gamma. Curr Opin Immunol 4,321-6 (1992)

15 M.A. Farrar, & R.D. Schreiber: The molecular cell biology of interferon-gamma and its receptor. Annu Rev Immunol 11,571-611 (1993)

16 P. Salgame, J.S. Abrams, C. Clayberger, H. Goldstein, J. Convit, R.L. Modlin, & B.R. Bloom: Differing lymphokine profiles of functional subsets of human CD4 and CD8 T cell clones. Science 254,279-82 (1991)

17 R.D. Stout, & K. Bottomly: Antigen specific activation of effector macrophages by interferon-gamma producing (Th1) T cell clones. Failure of IL-4 producing (Th2) T cell clones to activate effector function in macrophages. J Immunol 142,760-5 (1989)

18 R.D. Stout, & J. Suttles: T cell-macrophage cognate interaction in the activation of macrophage effector function by Th2 cells. J Immunol 150,5330-7 (1993)

19 X. Tao, & R.D. Stout: T cell-mediated cognate signaling of nitric oxide production by macrophages. Requirements for activation of macrophages by plasma membranes isolated from T cells. Eur J Immunol 23,2916-21 (1993)

20 J. Suttles, R.W. Miller, X. Tao, & R.D. Stout: T cells which do not express membrane tumor necrosis factor-alpha activate macrophage effector function by cell contact-dependent signaling of macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Eur J Immunol 24,1736-42 (1994)

21 J.P. Sypek, M.M. Matzilevich, & D.J. Wyler: Th2 lymphocyte clone can activate macrophage antileishmanial defense by a lymphokine-independent mechanism in vitro and can augment parasite attrition in vivo. Cell Immunol 133,178-86 (1991)

22 J.-M. Li, P. Isler, J.-M. Dayer, & D. Burger: Contact-dependent stimulation of monocytic cells and neutrophils by stimulated human T cell clones. Immunology 84,571-6 (1995)

23 U. Shu, M. Kiniwa, C.Y. Wu, C. Maliszewski, N. Vezzio, J. Hakimi, M. Gately, & G. Delespesse: Activated T cells induce interleukin-12 production by monocytes via CD40-CD40 ligand interaction. Eur J Immunol 25,1125-8 (1995)

24 L. Tian, R.J. Noelle, & D.A. Lawrence: Activated T cells enhance nitric oxide production by murine splenic macrophages through gp39 and LFA-1. Eur J Immunol 25,306-9 (1995)

25 M. Roy, A. Aruffo, J. Ledbetter, P. Linsley, M. Kehry, & R.J. Noelle: Studies on the interdependence of gp39 and B7 expression and function during antigen-specific immune responses. Eur J Immunol 25,596-603 (1995)

26 M.K. Kennedy, K.M. Mohler, K.D. Shanebeck, P.R. Baum, K.S. Picha, C.A. Otten-Evans, C.A. Janeway, & K.H. Grabstein: Induction of B cell costimulatory function by recombinant murine CD40 ligand. Eur J Immunol 24,116-23 (1994)

27 P.A. Kiener, P. Moran-Davis, B.M. Rankin, A.F. Wahl, A. Aruffo, & D. Hollenbaugh: Stimulation of CD40 with purified soluble gp39 induces proinflammatory responses in human monocytes. J Immunol 155,4917-25 (1995)

28 D.H. Wagner, R.D. Stout, & J. Suttles: Role of the CD40-CD40 ligand interaction in CD4+ T cell contact-dependent activation of monocyte IL-1 synthesis. Eur J Immunol 24,3148-54 (1994)

29 M.R. Alderson, R.J. Armitage, T.W. Tough, L. Strockbine, W.C. Fanslow, & M.K. Spriggs: CD40 expression by human monocytes: regulation by cytokines and activation of monocytes by the ligand for CD40. J Exp Med 178,669-74 (1993)

30 N. Malik, B.W. Greenfield, A.F. Wahl, & P.A. Kiener: Activation of human monocytes through CD40 induces matrix metalloproteinases. J Immunol 156,3952-60 (1996)

31 R.D. Stout, J. Suttles, J. Xu, I.S. Grewal, & R.A. Flavell: Impaired T cell-mediated macrophage activation in CD40 ligand-deficient mice. J Immunol 156,8-12 (1996)

32 C.D. Gimmi, G.J. Freeman, J.G. Gribben, K. Sugita, A.S. Freedman, C. Morimoto, & L.M. Nadler: B-cell surface antigen B7 provides a costimulatory signal that induces T cells to proliferate and secrete interleukin 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88,6575-9 (1991)

33 G.J. Freeman, F. Borriello, R.J. Hodes, H. Reiser, J.G. Gribben, J.W. Ng, J. Kim, J.M. Goldberg, K. Hathcock, G. Laszlo, L.A. Lombard, S. Wang, G.S. Gray, L.M. Nadler, & A.H. Sharpe: Murine B7-2, an alternative CTLA-4 counter-receptor that costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production. J Exp Med 178,2185-92 (1993)

34 E.A. Clark, & J.A. Ledbetter: How B and T cells talk to each other. Nature 367,425-8 (1994)

35 A.J. Kaplan, K.D. Chavin, H. Yagita, M.S. Sandrin, L.-H. Qin, J. Lin, G. Lindenmayer, & J.S. Bromberg: Production and characterization of soluble and transmembrane murine CD2. Demonstration that CD48 is a ligand for CD2 and that CD48 adhesion is regulated by CD2. J Immunol 151,4022-32 (1993)

36 S.B. Mizel: Interleukin 1 and T cell activation. Immunol Today 8,330(1987)

37 J.J. Oppenheim, C.O.C. Zachariae, N. Mukaida, & K. Matsushima: Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene "intercrine" cytokine family. Ann Rev Immunol 9,617-48 (1991)

38 P. Davies, P.J. Bailey, & M.M. Goldenberg: The role of arachidonic acid oxygenation products in pain and inflammation. Ann Rev Immunol 2,335-57 (1984)

39 N.H. Ruddle, C.M. Bergman, K.M. McGrath, E.G. Lingenheld, M.L. Grunnet, S.J. Padula, & R.B. Clark: An antibody to lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor prevents transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med 172,1193-9 (1990)

40 S.J. Green, M.S. Meltzer, J.B. Hibbs, & C.A. Nacy: Activated macrophages destroy intracellular Leishmania major amastigotes by an L-arginine-dependent killing mechanism. J Immunol 144,278 (1990)

41 D.J. Stuehr, & O.W. Griffith: Mammalian nitric oxide synthases. Adv Enzymol Molec Biol 65,287-364 (1992)

42 R.B. Johnston, Jr., S. Kitagawa, C.K. Edwards, III, J.Y. Channon, H. Suzuki, & M.J. Pabst: The respiratory burst in activated macrophages: Studies of its molecular basis and evidence for downregulation in chronic infection. Adv Exp Med Biol 239,63-72 (1988)

43 R.T. Gazzinelli, I.P. Oswald, S. Hieny, S.L. James, & A. Sher: The microbicidal activity of interferon-gamma-treated macrophages against Trypanosoma cruzi involves an L-arginine-dependent, nitrogen oxide-mediated mechanism inhibitable by interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta. Eur J Immunol 22,2501-6 (1992)

44 R. Rothlein, T.K. Kishimoto, & E. Mainolfi: Crosslinking of ICAM-1 induces co-signaling of an oxidative burst from mononuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 152,2488-95 (1994)

45 W.C. Liles, J.A. Ledbetter, A.W. Waltersdorph, & S.J. Klebanoff: Cross-linking of CD45 enhances activation of the respiratory burst in response to specific stimuli in human phagocytes. J Immunol 155,2175-84 (1995)

46 L.M. Wahl, C.E. Olsen, A.L. Sandberg, & S.E. Mergenhagen: Prostaglandin regulation of macrophage collagenase production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74,4955-8 (1977)

47 S. Lacraz, P. Isler, E. Vey, H.G. Welgus, & J.-M. Dayer: Direct contact between T lymphocytes and monocytes is a major pathway for induction of metalloproteinase expression. J Biol Chem 269,22027-33 (1994)

48 A.M.M. Miltenburg, S. Lacraz, H.G. Welgus, & J.-M. Dayer: Immobilized anti-CD3 antibody activates T cell clones to induce the production of interstitial collagenase, but not tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, in monocytic THP-1 cells and dermal fibroblasts. J Immunol 154,2655-67 (1995)

49 A.K. Hewson, T. Smith, J.P. Leonard, & M.L. Cuzner: Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor Ro31-9790. Inflamm Res 44,345-9 (1995)

50 T.P. Misko, J.L. Trotter, & A.H. Cross: Mediation of inflammation by encephalitogenic cells: interferon gamma induction of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. J Neuroimmunol 61,195-204 (1995)

51 Y. Okuda, Y. Nakatsuji, H. Fujimura, H. Esumi, T. Ogura, T. Yanagihara, & S. Sakoda: Expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the central nervous system of mice correlates with the severity of actively induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 62,103-12 (1995)

52 L. Ding, P.S. Linsley, L.Y. Huang, R.N. Germain, & E.M. Shevach: IL-10 inhibits macrophage costimulatory activity by selectively inhibiting the up-regulation of B7 expression. J Immunol 151,1224-34 (1993)

53 C. Buelens, F. Willems, A. Delvaux, G. Peirard, J.-P. Delville, T. Velu, & M. Goldman: Interleukin-10 differentially regulates B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) expression on human peripheral blood dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 25,2668-72 (1995)

54 C. Bogdan, Y. Vodovotz, & C. Nathan: Macrophage deactivation by interleukin 10. J Exp Med 174,1549-55 (1991)

55 I.P. Oswald, T.A. Wynn, A. Sher, & S.L. James: Interleukin 10 inhibits macrophage microbicidal activity by blocking the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor alpha required as a costimulatory factor for interferon gamma-induced activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89,8676-80 (1992)

56 C. Bogdan, J. Paik, Y. Vodovotz, & C. Nathan: Contrasting mechanisms for suppression of macrophage cytokine release by transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10. J Biol Chem 267,23301-8 (1992)

57 R.T. Gazzinelli, I.P. Oswald, S.L. James, & A. Sher: IL-10 inhibits parasite killing and nitrogen oxide production by IFN-gamma-activated macrophages. J Immunol 148,1792-6 (1992)

58 S. Tsunawaki, M. Sporn, A. Ding, & C. Nathan: Deactivation of macrophages by transforming growth factor-beta. Nature 334,260-2 (1988)

59 A. Ding, C.F. Nathan, J. Graycar, R. Derynck, D.J. Stuehr, & S. Srimal: Macrophage deactivating factor and transforming growth factors-beta1, -beta2, and -beta3 inhibit induction of macrophage nitrogen oxide synthesis by IFN-gamma. J Immunol 145,940-4 (1990)

60 I.P. Oswald, R.T. Gazzinelli, A. Sher, & S.L. James: IL-10 synergizes with IL-4 and transforming growth factor-beta to inhibit macrophage cytotoxic activity. J Immunol 148,3578-82 (1992)

61 J. Link, B. He, V. Navikas, W. Palasik, S. Fredrikson, M. Soderstrom, & H. Link: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 suppresses autoantigen-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not of interleukin-10 in multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol 58,21-35 (1995)

62 D.B. Stevens, K.E. Gould, & R.H. Swanborg: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha/lymphotoxin production and adoptive transfer of disease by effector cells of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 51,77-83 (1994)

63 L. Santambrogio, G.M. Hochwald, B. Saxena, C.H. Leu, J.E. Martz, J.A. Carlino, N.H. Ruddle, M.A. Palladino, L.I. Gold, & G.J. Thorbecke: Studies on the mechanisms by which transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) protects against allergic encephalomyelitis. Antagonism between TGF-beta and tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol 151,1116-27 (1993)

64 D.M. Paulnock: Macrophage activation by T cells. Curr Opin Immunol 4,344-9 (1992)

65 C. Bogdan, & C. Nathan: Modulation of macrophage function by transforming growth factor beta, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10. Ann N Y Acad Sci 685,713-39 (1993)

66 F. Figueiredo, T.J. Koerner, & D.O. Adams: Molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of class II histocompatibility molecules on macrophages. Effects of inductive and suppressive signals on gene transcription. J Immunol 143,3781-6 (1989)

67 G. Frendl, & D.I. Beller: Regulation of macrophage activation by IL-3. I. IL-3 functions as a macrophage-activating factor with unique properties, inducing Ia and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 but not cytotoxicity. J Immunol 144,3392-9 (1990)

68 M.R. Alderson, T.W. Tough, S.F. Ziegler, & R.J. Armitage: Regulation of human monocyte cell surface and souluble CD23 (Fc RII) by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin 3. J Immunol 149,1252-7 (1992)

69 A.S. Freedman, G.J. Freeman, K. Rhynhart, & L.M. Nadler: Selective induction of B7/BB-1 on interferon-gamma stimulated monocytes: A potential mechanism for amplification of T cell activation through the CD28 pathway. Cell Immunol 137,429-37 (1991)

70 J.L. Ho, S.H. He, M.J. Rios, & E.A. Wick: Interleukin-4 inhibits human macrophage activation by tumor necrosis factor, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3 for antileishmanial activity and oxidative burst capacity. J Infect Dis 165,344-51 (1992)

71 J.L. Ho, S.G. Reed, J. Sobel, S. Arruda, S.H. He, E.A. Wick, & K.H. Grabstein: Interleukin-3 induces antimicrobial activity against Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi and tumoricidal activity in human peripheral blood-derived macrophages. Infect Immunity 60,2331-7 (1992)

72 W.A. Phillips, & J.A. Hamilton: Phorbol ester-stimulated superoxide production by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages requires preexposure to cytokines. J Immunol 142,2445-9 (1989)

73 S.L. Abramson, & J.I. Gallin: IL-4 inhibits superoxide production by human mononuclear phagocytes. J Immunol 144,625-30 (1990)

74 S. Gautam, J.M. Tebo, & T.A. Hamilton: IL-4 suppresses cytokine gene expression induced by IFN-gamma and/or IL-2 in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Immunol 148,1725-30 (1992)

75 S. Narumi, J.H. Finke, & T.A. Hamilton: Interferon gamma and interleukin 2 synergize to induce selective monokine expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Biol Chem 265,7036-41 (1990)

76 R.D. Stout: Macrophage activation by T cells: Cognate and noncognate signals. Curr Opin Immunol 5,398-403 (1993)

77 W. Deng, B. Thiel, C.S. Tannenbaum, T.A. Hamilton, & D.J. Stuehr: Synergistic cooperation between T cell lymphokines for induction of the nitric oxide synthase gene in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Immunol 151,322-9 (1993)

78 S.J. Green, R.M. Crawford, J.T. Hockmeyer, M.S. Meltzer, & C.A. Nacy: Leishmania major amastigotes initiate the L-arginine dependent killing mechanism in IFN-stimulated macrophages by induction of TNF-alpha. J Immunol 145,4290 (1990)

79 G.W. Cox, G. Melillo, U. Chattopadhyay, D. Mullet, R.H. Fertel, & L. Varesio: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent production of reactive nitrogen intermediates mediates IFN-gamma plus IL-2-induced murine macrophage tumoricidal activity. J Immunol 149,3290-6 (1992)

80 R. Appelberg, I.M. Orme, M.I. Pinto de Sousa, & M.T. Silva: In vitro effects of interleukin-4 on interferon-gamma-induced macrophage activation. Immunology 76,553-9 (1992)

81 D. Chantry, M. ATurner, E. Abney, & M. Feldmann: Modulation of cytokine production by transforming growth factor-beta. J Immunol 142,4295-300 (1989)

82 P. Chomarat, E. Vannier, J. Dechanet, M.C. Rissoan, J. Banchereau, C.A. Dinarello, & P. Miossec: Balance of IL-1 receptor antagonist/IL-1 beta in rheumatoid synovium and its regulation by IL-4 and IL-10. J Immunol 154,1432-9 (1995)

83 M. Turner, D. Chantry, P. Katsikis, A. Berger, F.M. Brennan, & M. Feldmann: Induction of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein by transforming growth factor-beta. Eur J Immunol 21,1635-9 (1991)

84 R.J. Armitage, C.R. Maliszewski, M.R. Alderson, K.H. Grabstein, M.K. Spriggs, & W.C. Fanslow: CD40L: a multi-functional ligand. Semin Immunol 5,401-12 (1993)

85 R.A. Kroczek, D. Graf, D. Brugnoni, S. Giliani, U. Korthuer, A. Ugazio, G. Senger, H.W. Mages, A. Villa, & L.D. Notarangelo: Defective expression of CD40 ligand on T cells causes "X-linked immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM (HIGM1)". Immunol Rev 138,39-59 (1994)

86 F.H. Durie, T.M. Foy, S.R. Masters, J.D. Laman, & R.J. Noelle: The role of CD40 in the regulation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Immunol Today 15,406-11 (1994)

87 J.E. Buhlmann, T.M. Foy, A. Aruffo, K.M. Crassi, J.A. Ledbetter, W.R. Green, J.C. Xu, L.D. Shultz, D. Roopesian, R.A. Flavell, & et al: In the absence of a CD40 signal, B cells are tolerogenic. Immunity 2,645-53 (1995)

88 M. Roy, T. Waldschmidt, A. Aruffo, J.A. Ledbetter, & R.J. Noelle: The regulation of the expression of gp39, the CD40 ligand, on normal and cloned CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 151,2497-510 (1993)

89 B.E. Castle, K. Kishimoto, C. Stearns, M.L. Brown, & M.R. Kehry: Regulation of expression of the ligand for CD40 on T helper lymphocytes. J Immunol 151,1777-88 (1993)

90 E. Fischer, C. Delibrias, & M.D. Kazatchkine: Expression of CR2 (the C3dg/EBV receptor, CD21) on normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. J Immunol 146,865-9 (1991)

91 L. Flores-Romo, J. Shields, Y. Humbert, P. Graber, J.-P. Aubry, J.-F. Gauchat, G. Ayala, B. Allet, M. Chavez, H. Bazin, M. Capron, & J.-Y. Bonnefoy: Inhibition of an in vivo antigen-specific IgE response by antibodies to CD23. Science 261,1038-41 (1993)

92 W. Chen, W. Knapp, O. Majdic, H. Stockinger, G.A. Bohmig, & G.J. Zlabinger: Co-ligation of CD31 and Fc RII induces cytokine production in human monocytes. J Immunol 152,3991-7 (1994)

93 F. Lund, N. Solvason, J.C. Grimaldi, R.M.E. Parkhouse, & M. Howard: Murine CD38: an immunoregulatory ectoenzyme. Immunol Today 16,469-73 (1995)

94 D.S.A. Webb, Y. Shimizu, G.A. Van Seventer, S. Shaw, & T.L. Gerrard: LFA-3, CD44, and CD45: Physiologic triggers of human monocyte TNF-alpha and IL-1 release. Science 249,1295-7 (1990)

95 P. Isler, E. Vey, J.H. Zhang, & J.M. Dayer: Cell surface glycoproteins expressed on activated human T cells induce production of interleukin-1 beta by monocytic cells: a possible role of CD69. Eur Cytokine Netw 4,15-23 (1993)

96 R. De Maria, M.G. Cifone, R. Trotta, M.R. Rippo, C. Festuccia, A. Santoni, & R. Testi: Triggering of human monocyte activation through CD69, a member of the natural killer cell gene complex family of signal transducing receptors. J Exp Med 180,1999-2004 (1994)

97 B. Dugas, M.D. Mossalayi, C. Damais, & J.-P. Kolb: Nitric oxide production by human monocytes: evidence for a role of CD23. Immunol Today 16,574-80 (1995)

98 S. Lecoanet Henchoz, J.F. Gauchat, J.P. Aubry, P. Graber, P. Life, N. Paul Eugene, B. Ferrua, A.L. Corbi, B. Dugas, C. Plater Zyberk, & et al: CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18. Immunity 3,119-25 (1995)

99 I. Vouldoukis, V. Riveros-Moreno, B. Dugas, F. Quaaz, P. Becherel, P. Debre, S. Moncada, & M.D. Mossalayi: The killing of Leishmania major by human macrophages is mediated by nitric oxide induced after ligation of the Fc RII/CD23 surface antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92,7804-8 (1995)

100 N. Paul Eugene, J.P. Kolb, A. Abadie, J. Gordon, G. Delespesse, M. Sarfati, J.M. Mencia Huerta, P. Braquet, & B. Dugas: Ligation of CD23 triggers cAMP generation and release of inflammatory mediators in human monocytes. J Immunol 149,3066-71 (1992)

101 A. Herbelin, S. Elhadad, F. Ouaaz, D. deGroote, & B. Descamps-Latscha: Soluble CD23 potentiates interleukin-1 induced secretion of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by human monocytes. Eur J Immunol 24,1869-73 (1994)

102 M. Armant, H. Ishihara, M. Rubio, G. Delespesse, & M. Sarfati: Regulation of cytokine production by soluble CD23: costimulation of interferon-gamma secretion and triggering of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release. J Exp Med 180,1005-11 (1994)

103 J.C. Prinz, X. Baur, G. Mazur, & E.B. Rieber: Allergen-directed expressin of Fc receptors for IgE (CD23) on human T lymphocytes is modulated by interleukin 4 and interferon-gamma. Eur J Immunol 20,1259-64 (1990)

104 I.S. Grewal, H.G. Foellmer, D.P. Grewal, J. Xu, F. Hardardottir, J.L. Baron, C.A. Janeway, Jr., & R.A. Flavell: Requirement for CD40 ligand in costimulation induction, T cell activation, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Science 273,1864-7 (1996)

105 R.D. Stout, & J. Suttles: The many roles of CD40 in cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Immunol Today 17,487-92 (1996)

106 T.A. Yednock, C. Cannon, L.C. Fritz, F. Sanchez-Madrid, L. Steinman, & N. Karin: Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against 4 1 integrin. Nature 356,63-6 (1992)

107 M.J. Yellin, J. Brett, D. Baum, A. Matsushima, M. Szabolcs, D. Stern, & L. Chess: Functional interactions of T cells with endothelial cells: the role of CD40L-CD40-mediated signals. J Exp Med 182,1857-64 (1995)

108 J.A. Bluestone: New perspectives of CD28-B7-mediated T cell costimulation. Immunity 2,555-9 (1995)

109 S.D. Miller, C.L. Vanderlugt, D.J. Lenschow, J.G. Pope, N.J. Karandikar, M.C. Dal Canto, & J.A. Bluestone: Blockade of CD28/B7-1 interaction prevents epitope spreading and clinical relapses of murine EAE. Immunity 3,739-45 (1995)

110 M.K. Racke, D.E. Scott, L. Quigley, G.S. Gray, R. Abe, C.H. June, & P.J. Perrin: Distinct roles for B7-1 (CD-80) and B7-2 (CD-86) in the initiation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Clin Invest 96,2195-203 (1995)