[Frontiers in Bioscience 2, 72-92, October 1, 1997]
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SPLANCHNIC VASCULAR CONTROL DURING SEPSIS AND ENDOTOXEMIA

Albert D. Sam II1, Avadhesh C. Sharma2, William R. Law1, 2 and James L. Ferguson2

Departments of Surgery1 and Physiology & Biophysics2, The University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612-7342

Received 7/2/97 Accepted 9/22/97

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
2.1 Endotoxemia, sepsis and septic shock
3. Animal models: Heading for a clinically relevant model?
3.1 Endotoxemia
3.2 Sepsis
4.Regulation of vascular responses during the progression of sepsis
4.1 Cytokines
4.1.1 Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha-mediated mechanisms
4.1.2 Interleukin-mediated mechanisms
4.2 Complement (C5a)-mediated mechanisms
4.3 Adenosine-mediated mechanisms
4.4 Nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms
4.5 Endothelin-mediated mechanisms
5. Hepatosplanchnic perfusion during endotoxemia
5.1 Opiate antagonism during endotoxemia
5.1.1 Naloxone: Are the perfusion effects centrally or peripherally mediated?
5.2 ET and NO interactions
5.3 Influence of Adrenergic mechanisms.
6. Clinical interventions during sepsis
6.1 Measurement of splanchnic perfusion
6.2 Dopexamine
6.3 Dopamine
7. Acknowledgments
8. References
9. Entire manuscript

Key words: Splanchnic, Sepsis, Endotoxemia, Nitric Oxide, Endothelin, Adenosine
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