[Frontiers in Bioscience 3, c27-33, May 1, 1998]
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LURIE’S TUBERCLE-COUNT METHOD TO TEST TB VACCINE EFFICACY IN RABBITS

Arthur M. Dannenberg, Jr.

Departments of Environmental Health Sciences, Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, and Epidemiology, School of Hygiene and Public Health; and the Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205

Received 3/9/98 Accepted 3/14/98

14. REFERENCES

1. M.B. Lurie: Resistance to Tuberculosis: Experimental Studies in Native and Acquired Defensive Mechanisms. Published for the Commonwealth Fund by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1964)

2. M.B. Lurie , S. Abramson & A.G. Heppleston: On the response of genetically resistant and susceptible rabbits to the quantitative inhalation of human-type tubercle bacilli and the nature of resistance to tuberculosis. J Exptl Med 95, 119-134 (1952)

3. M.B. Lurie, P. Zappasodi, E. Cardona-Lynch & A.M. Dannenberg Jr: The response to the intracutaneous inoculation of BCG as an index of native resistance to tuberculosis. J Immunol 68, 369-387 (1952)

4. M.B. Lurie, P. Zappasodi, A.M. Dannenberg, Jr & G.H. Weiss: On the mechanism of genetic resistance to tuberculosis and its mode of inheritance. Their significance for the nature of genetic resistance. Am J Human Genet 4, 302-314 (1952)

5. M.J. Allison, P. Zappasodi & M.B. Lurie: Host-parasite relationships in natively resistant and susceptible rabbits on quantitative inhalation of tubercle bacilli. Am Rev Respir Dis 85, 553-569 (1962)

6. M.B. Lurie, A.G. Heppleston, S. Abramson & I.B. Swartz: An evaluation of the method of quantitative airborne infection and its use in the study of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Am Rev Tuberc 61, 765-797 (1950)

7. P.J. Converse, A.M. Dannenberg Jr, J.E. Estep, K. Sugisaki, Y. Abe, B.H. Schofield & M.L.M. Pitt: Cavitary tuberculosis produced in rabbits by aerosolized virulent tubercle bacilli. Infect Immun 64, 4776-4787 (1996)

8. M.B. Lurie, P. Zappasodi & C. Tickner: On the nature of genetic resistance to tuberculosis in the light of host-parasite relationships in natively resistant and susceptible rabbits. Am Rev Tuberc Pulmon Dis 72, 297-329 (1955)

9. M.B. Lurie: Experimental epidemiology of tuberculosis: Hereditary resistance to attack by tuberculosis and to the ensuing disease and the effect of the concentration of tubercle bacilli upon the two phases of resistance. J Exp Med 79, 573-589 (1944)

10. H.J. Henderson, A.M. Dannenberg Jr & M.B. Lurie: Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by rabbit pulmonary alveolar macrophages and its relation to native resistance to tuberculosis. J Immunol 91, 553-556 (1963)

11. A.M. Dannenberg Jr: The rabbit model of tuberculosis. In: Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, Protection, and Control. Ed: Bloom BR. The American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC 149-156 (1994)

12. A.M. Dannenberg Jr, P.C. Walter & F.A. Kapral: A histochemical study of phagocytic and enzymatic functions of rabbit mononuclear and polymorphonuclear exudate cells and alveolar macrophages. II. The effect of particle ingestion on enzyme activity: two phases of in vitro activation. J Immunol 90, 448-465 (1963)

13. A.M. Dannenberg Jr & G.A.W. Rook: Pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis: an interplay of tissue-damaging and macrophage-activating immune responses -- dual mechanisms that control bacillary multiplication. In: Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, Protection, and Control. Ed: Bloom BR. The American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC 459-483 (1994)

14. A.M. Dannenberg Jr & J.F. Tomashefski: Pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis. In: Fishman’s Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders [Third Edition], Vol. 2. Ed-in-Chief: Fishman AP. McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., New York, NY 2447-2471 (1997)

15. D.T. Fearon & R.M. Locksley: The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science 272, 50-54 (1996)

16. R. Medzhitov & C.A. Janeway Jr: Innate immunity: impact on the adaptive immune response. Curr Opin Immunol 9, 4-9 (1997)

17. A.M. Dannenberg Jr: Immunopathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Hosp Pract 28, 33-40 (or 51-58) (1993)

18. A.M. Dannenberg Jr: Delayed-type hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Immunol Today 12, 228-233 (1991)

19. Y. Yamamura: The pathogenesis of tuberculous cavities. Adv Tuberc Res 9, 13-37 (1958)

20. Y. Yamamura, Y. Ogawa, H. Maeda & Y. Yamamura: Prevention of tuberculous cavity formation by desensitization with tuberculin-active peptide. Am Rev Respir Dis 109, 594-601 (1974)

21. A.M. Dannenberg Jr & M. Sugimoto: Liquefaction of caseous foci in tuberculosis. Editorial. Am Rev Respir Dis 113, 257-259 (1976)

22. G.W. Comstock: Identification of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 138, 479-480 (1988)

23. A.M. Dannenberg Jr, O.T. Meyer, J.R. Esterly & T. Kambara: The local nature of immunity in tuberculosis, illustrated histochemically in dermal BCG lesions. J Immunol 100, 931-941 (1968)

24. A.M. Dannenberg Jr: Cellular hypersensitivity and cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis: Specificity, systemic and local nature, and associated macrophage enzymes. Bact Rev 32, 85-102 (1968)

25. M. Suga, A.M. Dannenberg, Jr & S. Higuchi: Macrophage functional heterogeneity in vivo: Macrolocal and microlocal macrophage activation, identified by double-staining tissues sections of BCG granulomas for pairs of enzymes. Am J Pathol 99, 305-324 (1980)

26. P.J. Converse, A.M. Dannenberg Jr, T. Shigenaga, D.N. McMurray, S.W. Phalen, J.L. Stanford, G.A.W. Rook, H. Abbey, T., Koru-Sengul, J.E. Estep & M.L.M. Pitt: Pulmonary tuberculosis in rabbits: The early immune response, cavity formation, tuberculin sensitivity, and Mycobacterium vaccae immunotherapy. Submitted to Clin Immunol Immunopathol..

27. P.A. Bretscher, G. Wei, J.N. Menon & H. Bielefeldt-Ohmann: Establishment of stable, cell-mediated immunity that makes "susceptible" mice resistant to Leishmania major. Science 257, 539-542 (1992)

28. T.R. Mosmann, S. Sad: The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more. Immunol Today 17, 138-146 (1996)

29. S. Romagnani: The Th1/Th2 paradigm. Immunol Today 18, 263-266 (1997)

30. M.B. Lurie: Heredity, constitution and tuberculosis. An experimental study. Am Rev Tuberc 44 (Suppl 3), 1-125 (1941)

31. F. O’Grady & R.L. Riley: Experimental airborne tuberculosis. Adv Tuberc Res 12, 150-190 (1963)

32. M.J. Lefford: Diseases in mice and rats. In: The Mycobacteria: A Sourcebook, Part B. Eds: Kubika GP & Wayne LG. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York & Basel 947-977 (1984)

33. J. Francis: Tuberculosis in Animals and Man. A Study in Comparative Pathology. Cassell and Co., Ltd., London (1958)

34. A.M. Dannenberg Jr: Pathogenesis of tuberculosis: Native and acquired resistance in animals and humans. In: Microbiology - 1984. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC 344-354 (1984)

35. D.N. McMurray, F.M. Collins, A.M. Dannenberg Jr & D.W. Smith: Pathogenesis of experimental tuberculosis in animal models. In: Tuberculosis. Ed: Shinnick TM. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1996) pp. 157-179.

36. D.W. Smith, D.N. McMurray, E.H. Wiegeshaus, A.A. Grover & G.E. Harding: Host-parasite relationships in experimental airborne tuberculosis. IV. Early events in the course of infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated guinea pigs. Amer Rev Respir Dis 102, 937-949 (1970)

37. R.S. Ho, J.S. Fok, G.E. Harding & D.W. Smith: Host-parasite relationships in experimental airborne tuberculosis. VII. Fate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in primary lung lesions and in primary lesion-free lung tissue infected as a result of bacillemia. J Infect Dis 138, 237-241 (1978

38. D.W. Smith, V. Balasubramanian & E.H. Wiegeshaus: A guinea pig model of experimental airborne tuberculosis for evaluation of the response to chemotherapy: the effect on bacilli in the initial phase of treatment. Tubercle 72, 223-231 (1991)

39. V. Balasubramanian, E.H. Wiegeshaus, B.T. Taylor & D.W. Smith: Pathogenesis of tuberculosis: pathway to apical localization. Tubercle Lung Dis 75, 168-178 (1994)

40. D.W. Smith & G.E. Harding: Animal model: Experimental airborne tuberculosis in the guinea pig. Am J Pathol 89, 273-276 (1977)

41. I.M. Orme & F.M. Collins: Mouse model of tuberculosis. In: Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, Protection, and Control. Ed: Bloom BR. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC 113-134 (1994)

42. R.F. Schell, W.F. Ealey, G.E. Harding & D.W. Smith: The influence of vaccination on the course of experimental airborne tuberculosis in mice. J Reticuloendothel Soc 16, 131-138 (1974)

43. Rich AR. Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis [2nd edition]. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois 123-125 (1951)

44. M. Lagranderie, P. Raviss, G. Marchal, M. Gheorghiu, V. Balasubramanian, E.H. Wiegeshaus & D.W. Smith: BCG-induced protection in guines pigs vaccinated and challenged via the respiratory route. Tubercle & Lung Dis 74, 38-46 (1993)

45. D.W. Smith, E. Wiegeshaus, R. Navalkar & A.A. Grover: Host-parasite relationships in experimental airborne tuberculosis. I. Preliminary studies in BCG-vaccinated and nonvaccinated animals. J Bacteriol 91, 718-724 (1966)

46. P.G. Pal & M.A. Horwitz: Immunization with extracellular proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces cell-mediated immune responses and substantial protective immunity in a guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Infect Immun 60, 4781-4792 (1992)

47. M.A. Horwitz, B-Y.E. Lee, B.J. Dillon & G. Harth: Protective immunity against tuberculosis induced by vaccination with major extracellular proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92, 1530-1534 (1995)

48. V. Balasubramanian, E.H. Wiegeshaus & D.W. Smith. Growth characteristics of recent sputum isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in guinea pigs infected by the respiratory route. Infect Immum 60, 4762-4767 (1992)

49. A.M. Dannenberg Jr & E.M. Scott: Determination of respiratory LD50 from a number of primary lesions as illustrated by melioidosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 92, 571-575 (1956)

50. A.M. Dannenberg Jr & E.M. Scott: Melioidosis: Pathogenesis and immunity in mice and hamsters. II. Studies with avirulent strains of Malleomyces pseudomallei. Am J Pathol 34, 1099-1121 (1958)

51. A.M. Dannenberg Jr & E.M. Scott: Melioidosis: Pathogenesis and immunity in mice and hamsters. III. The effect of vaccination with avirulent strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei on the resistance to the establishment and the resistance to the progress of respiratory melioidosis caused by virulent strains: All-or-none aspects of this disease. J Immunol 84, 233-246 (1960)