[Frontiers in Bioscience 3, d1192-1208, December 1, 1998]
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PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINES

Margaret F. Duggan-Keen, Michael D. Brown, Simon N. Stacey and Peter L. Stern

Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester M20 4BX , United Kingdom

Received 7/21/98 Accepted 9/22/98

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction: Why HPV vaccines?
3. Issues in vaccine design:
3.1. HPV life cycle
3.2. Target antigens for prophylaxis or therapy
3.3. Natural immunity against HPV
4. Candidate vaccines
4.1. Animal models
4.2. Virus like particles (VLPs)
4.3. Proteins
4.4. Peptides
4.5. Viral vectors
4.6. DNA
4.7. Bacterial vectors
4.8. Dendritic cells
5. Vaccine clinical trial parameters
5.1. Evaluation of vaccine clinical efficacy
5.2. Cost and ease of implementation
5.3. Why might HPV vaccines not work?
6. Summary
7. Acknowledgement
8. References
9. Entire manuscript

Key words: Human Papillomaviruses, Cervical Cancer, Viral Vaccines, Cancer Vaccines, Review, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Immunotherapy