[Frontiers in Bioscience 3, d604-615, July 1, 1998]

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Warren Knudson

Department of Biochemistry, Department of Pathology, Rush Medical College, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-3864

Received 4/27/98, Accepted 5/15/98


1. Knudson, C. B., and W. Knudson: Hyaluronan-binding proteins in development, tissue homeostasis and disease. FASEB J. 7, 1233-41 (1993)

2. Hughes, H. E., D. M. Salter, and R. Simpson: CD44 expression in human bone: a novel marker of osteocytic differentiation. J Bone and Mineral Res. 9, 39-44 (1994)

3. Jalkanen, S. T., R. F. Bargatze, J. Toyos, and E. C. Butcher: Lymphocyte recognition of high endothelium: antibodies to distinct epitopes of an 85-95 kD glycoprotein antigen differentially inhibit lymphocyte binding to lymph node, mucosal or synovial endothelial cells. J Cell Biol. 105, 983-90 (1987)

4. Stamenkovic, I., M. Amiot, J. M. Pesando, and B. Seed: A lymphocyte molecule implicated in lymph node homing is a member of the cartilage link protein family. Cell. 56, 1057-62 (1989)

5. Haynes, B. F., L. Hua-Xin, and K. L. Patton: The transmembrane hyaluronate receptor (CD44): Multiple functions, multiple forms. Cancer Cells. 3, 347-50 (1991)

6. Jackson, D. G., J. I. Bell, R. Dickinson, J. Timans, J. Shields, and N. Whittle: Proteoglycan forms of the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 are alternatively spliced variants containing the v3 exon. J Cell Biol. 128, 673-85 (1995)

7. Knudson, W., and K. E. Kuettner: Proteoglycans. In: Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases. R. L. Wortmann, editor. Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta, GA, 33-38 (1997).

8. Chi-Rosso, G., and B. P. Toole: Hyaluronate - binding protein of simian virus 40 - transformed 3T3 Cells: membrane distribution and reconstitution into lipid vesicles. J Cell Biochem. 33, 173-83 (1987)

9. Underhill, C. B., G. Chi-Rosso, and B. P. Toole: Effect of detergent solubilization on the hyaluronanate-binding protein from membranes of Simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 258, 8086-91 (1983)

10. Gunthert, U., M. Hofmann, W. Rudy, S. Reber, M. Zoller, I. Haussmann, S. Matzku, A. Wenzel, H. Ponta, and P. Herrlich: A new variant of glycoprotein CD44 confers metastatic potential to rat carcinoma cells. Cell. 65, 13-24 (1991)

11. Reber, S., S. Matzku, U. Gunthert, H. Ponta, P. Herrlich, and M. Zoller: Retardation of metastatic tumor growth after immunization with metastasis-specific monoclonal antibodies. Internatl J Cancer. 46, 919-27 (1990)

12. Salmi, M., K. Gron-Virta, P. Sointu, R. Grenman, H. Kalimo, and S. Jalkanen: Regulated expression of exon v6 containing isoforms of CD44 in man: downregulation during malignant transformation of tumors of squamocellular origin. J Cell Biol. 122, 431-42 (1993)

13. Tanabe, K. K., L. M. Ellis, and H. Saya: Expression of CD44R1 adhesion molecule in colon carcinomas and metastases. Lancet. 341, 725-6 (1993)

14. Muller, W., A. Schneiders, K. H. Heider, S. Meier, G. Hommel, and H. E. Habbert: Expression and prognostic value of the CD44 splicing variants v5 and v6 in gastric cancer. J Pathol. 183, 222-7 (1997)

15. Knudson, W., and C. B. Knudson: Overproduction of hyaluronan in the tumor stroma. In: Tumor Matrix Biology. R. Adany, editor. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 55-79. (1995).

16. Weigel, P. H., V. C. Hascall, and M. Tammi: Hyaluronan synthases. J Biol Chem. 272, 13997-4000 (1997)

17. Spicer, A. P., M. L. Augustine, and J. A. McDonald: Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative mouse hyaluronan synthase. J Biol Chem. 271, 23400-6 (1996)

18. Prehm, P.: Hyaluronate is synthesized at plasma membranes. Biochem J. 220, 597-600 (1984)

19. Prehm, P.: Release of hyaluronate from eukaryotic cells. Biochem J. 267, 185-9 (1990)

20. Laurent, T. C., and R. E. Fraser: Hyaluronan. FASEB J. 6, 2397-404 (1992)

21. Wells, H. G.: The Chemistry of Tumors. In: Chemical Pathology. W.B. Sanders, Philadelphia, PA. 411-30. (1907).

22. Meyer, K., and J. W. Palmer: The polysaccharide of the vitreous humor. J Biol Chem. 107, 629-34 (1934)

23. Knudson, W., C. Biswas, X. Q. Li, R. E. Nemec, and B. P. Toole: The role and regulation of tumour-associated hyaluronan. In: The Biology of Hyaluronan, Ciba Foundation Symposium 143. D. Evered and J. Whelan, editors. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K. 150-69. (1989).

24. Roboz, J., A. P. Chahinian, J. F. Holland, D. Silides, and L. Szrajer: Early diagnosis and monitoring of transplanted human malignant mesothelioma by serum hyaluronic acid. J Natl Cancer Inst. 81, 924-8 (1989)

25. Delpech, B., P. Bertrand, and C. Maingonnat: Immunoenzymeassay of the hyaluronic acid-hyaluronectin interaction: Application to the the detection of hyaluronic acid in serum of normal subjects and cancer patients. Anal Biochem. 149, 555-65 (1985)

26. Delpech, B., B. Chevalier, N. Reinhardt, J. P. Julien, C. Duval, C. Maingonnat, P. Bastit, and B. Asselain: Serum hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) in breast-cancer patients. Internatl J Cancer. 46, 388-90 (1990)

27. Dahl, I. M. S., O. P. Solheim, B. Erikstein, and E. Muller: A longitudinal study of the hyaluronan level in the serum of patients with malignant mesothelioma under treatment. Cancer. 64, 68-73 (1989)

28. Kumar, S., D. C. West, J. M. Ponting, and H. R. Gattamaneni: Sera of children with renal tumours contain low-molecular-mass hyaluronic acid. Internatl J Cancer. 44, 445-8 (1989)

29. De Klerk, D. P.: The glycosaminoglycans of human bladder cancers of varying grade and stage. J Urology. 134, 978-81 (1985)

30. Iozzo, R. V., R. P. Bolender, and T. N. Wight: Proteoglycan changes in the intercellular matrix of human colon carcinoma. Lab Invest. 47, 124-37 (1982)

31. Bouziges, F., P. Simon-Assman, C. Leberquier, J. Marescaux, J. P. Bellocq, K. Haffen, and M. Kedinger: Changes in glycosaminoglycan synthesis and heparan sulfate deposition in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Internatl J Cancer. 46, 189-97 (1990)

32. De la Torre, M., A. F. Wells, J. Bergh, and A. Lindgren: Localization of hyaluronan in normal breast tissue, radial scar, and tubular breast carcinoma. Human Path. 24, 1294-7 (1993)

33. Wang, C., M. Tammi, H. Guo, and R. Tammi: Hyaluronan distribution in the normal epithelium of esophagus, stomach and colon and their cancers. Am J Pathol. 148, 1861-9 (1996)

34. Longaker, M. T., N. S. Adzick, D. Sadigh, B. Hendin, S. E. Stair, B. W. Duncan, M. R. Harrison, R. Spendlove, and R. Stern: Hyaluronic acid-stimulating activity in the pathophysiology of Wilms' tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst . 82, 135-8 (1990)

35. Sylven, B.: Ester sulphuric acids in stroma connective tissue. Acta Radiology. 59, 11-6 (1949)

36. Delpech, B., C. Maingonnat, N. Girand, C. Chauzy, R. Maunoury, A. Olivier, J. Tayot, and P. Creissard: Hyaluronan and hyaluronectin in the extracellular matrix of human brain tumour stroma. Eur J Cancer. 29A, 1012-7 (1993)

37. Toole, B. P., C. Biswas, and J. Gross: Hyaluronate and invasiveness of the rabbit V2 carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 76, 6299-303 (1979)

38. Iozzo, R. V., and W. Muller-Glauser: Neoplastic modulation of extracellular matrix: Proteoglycan changes in the rabbit mesentery induced by V2 carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 45, 5677-87 (1985)

39. Lin, R. Y., P. A. Argenta, K. M. Sullivan, R. Stern, and N. S. Adzick: Urinary hyaluronic acid is a Wilm's tumor marker. J Pediatric Surgery. 30, 304-8 (1995)

40. Ponting, J., A. Howell, D. Pye, and S. Kumar: Prognostic relevance of serum hyaluronan levels in patients with breast cancer.Intl J Cancer. 52, 873-6 (1992)

41. Bertrand, P., N. Girard, B. Delpech, C. Duval, J. D'Anjou, and J. P. Dauce: Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) and hyaluronectin in the extracellular matrix of human breast carcinomas: comparison between invasive and non-invasive areas.Intl J Cancer. 52, 1-6 (1992)

42. Ropponen, K., M. Tammi, J. Parkkinen, M. Eskelinen, R. Tammi, P. Lipponen, U. Agren, E. Alhava, and V. M. Kosma: Tumor cell-associated hyaluronan as an unfavorable prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 58, 342-7 (1988)

43. Toole, B. P.: Developmental role of hyaluronate. Connect Tissue Res. 10, 93-100 (1982)

44. Toole, B. P., and R. L. Trelstad: Hyaluronate production and removal during corneal development in the chick. Dev Biol. 26, 28-35 (1971)

45. Markwald, R. R., F. M. Funderberg, and D. H. Bernanke: Glycosaminoglycans: Potential determinants in cardiac morphogenesis. Texas Rep Biol and Med. 39, 253-70 (1979)

46. Orkin, R. W., and B. P. Toole: Hyaluronidase activity and hyaluronate content of the developing chick embryo heart. Dev Biol. 66, 308-20 (1978)

47. Smith, G. N., B. P. Toole, and J. Gross: Hyaluronidase activity and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the amputated newt limb. Dev Biol. 43, 221-32 (1975)

48. Anderson, C. B., and S. Meier: The effect of hyaluronidase treatment on the distribution of cranial neural crest cells in the chick embryo. J Exp Zoology. 221, 329-35 (1982)

49. Toole, B. P.: Proteoglycans and hyaluronan in morphogenesis and differentiation. In: Cell Biology of Extracellular Matrix. E. D. Hay, editor. Plenum Press, NY. 305-39. (1991).

50. Yeo, T.-K., J. A. Nagy, K.-T. Yeo, H. F. Dvorak, and B. P. Toole: Increased hyaluronan at sites of attachment to mesentary by CD44-positive mouse ovarian and breast tumor cells. Am J Path. 148, 1733-40 (1996)

51. Knudson, W., C. Biswas, and B. P. Toole: Interaction between human tumor cells and fibroblasts simulate hyaluronate synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 81, 6767-71 (1984)

52. Asplund, T., M. A. Versnel, T. C. Laurent, and P. Heldin: Human mesothelioma cells produce factors that stimulate the production of hyaluronan by mesothelial cells and fibroblasts. Cancer Res. 53, 388-92 (1993)

53. Yu, B. Q., B. O. Toole, and I. Stamenkovic: Induction of apoptosis of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells in vivo by disruption of tumor cell surface CD44 function. J Exp Med. 186, 1985-96 (1997)

54. Heldin, P., T. Asplund, D. Ytterberg, S. Thelin, and T. C. Laurent: Characterization of the molecular mechanism involved in the activation of hyaluronan synthetase by platelet-derived growth factor in human mesothelioma cells. Biochem J. 283, 165-70 (1992)

55. Knudson, W., and B. P. Toole: Membrane association of the hyaluronate stimulatory factor from LX-1 human lung carcinoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 38, 165-77 (1988)

56. Biswas, C., and B. P. Toole: Modulation of the extracellular matrix by tumor cell-fibroblast interactions. In: Cell Membranes. E. Elson, W. Frazier, and L. Glaser, editors. Plenum Publishing Corporation. NY, 341-63. (1987).

57. Culty, M., M. Shizari, E. W. Thompson, and C. B. Underhill: Binding and degradation of hyaluronan by human breast cancer cell lines expressing different isoforms of CD44: Correlation with invasive potential. J Cell Physiol. 160, 275-86 (1994)

58. Bretscher, M. S.: Endocytosis and recycling of the fibronectin receptor in CHO cells. EMBO J. 8, 1341-8 (1989)

59. Meyer, F. A.: Macromolecular basis of globular protein exclusion and of swelling pressure in loose connective tissue (umbilical cord). Biochem Biophys Acta. 755, 388-99 (1983)

60. Forrester, J. V., and P. C. Wilkinson: Inhibition of leukocyte locomotion by hyaluronic acid. J Cell Sci. 48, 315-31 (1981)

61. Doillon, C. J., and F. H. Silver: Collagen-based wound dressing: Effects of hyaluronic acid and fibronectin on wound healing. Biomaterial. 7, 3-10 (1995)

62. Turley, E. A., P. Bowman, and M. A. Kytryk: Effects of hyaluronate and hyaluronate-binding proteins on cell motile and contact behaviour. J Cell Sci. 78, 133-45 (1985)

63. Thomas, L., H. R. Byers, J. Vink, and I. Stamenkovic: CD44H regulates tumor cell migration on hyaluronate-coated substrate. J Cell Biol. 118, 971-7 (1992)

64. Knudson, W., and C. B. Knudson: Assembly of a chondrocyte-like pericellular matrix on non- chondrogenic cells. J Cell Sci. 99, 227-35 (1991)

65. Fraser, J. R., and B. J. Clarris: On the reactions of human synovial cells exposed to homologous leucocytes in vitro. Clin Exp Immun. 6, 211-25 (1970)

66. McBride, W. H., and J. B. L. Bard: Hyaluronidase sensitive halos around adherent cells. J Exp Med. 149, 507-15 (1979)

67. Knudson, W., E. Bartnik, and C. B. Knudson: Assembly of pericellular matrices by COS-7 cells transfected with CD44 homing receptor genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 90, 4003-7 (1993)

68. Knudson, C. B.: Hyaluronan receptor-directed assembly of chondrocyte pericellular matrix. J Cell Biol. 120, 825-34 (1993)

69. Perris, R., D. Perissinotto, Z. Pettway, M. Bronner-Fraser, M. Morgelin, and K. Kimata: Inhibitory effects of PG-H/aggrecan and PG-M/versican on avian neural cHTrest cell migration. FASEB J. 10, 293-301 (1996)

70. Bretscher, M. S.: Endocytosis, the sorting problem and cell locomotion in fibroblasts. Ciba Foundation Symp. 92, 266-81 (1982)

71. Auvinen, P. K., J. J. Parkkinen, R. T. Johansson, U. M. Agren, R. H. Tammi, M. J. Eskelinen, and V. M. Kosma: Expression of hyaluronan in benign and malignant breast lesions. Internatl J Cancer. 74, 477-81 (1997)

72. Knudson, W., C. Biswas, and B. P. Toole: Stimulation of glycosaminoglycan production in murine tumors. J Cell Biochem. 25, 183-96 (1984)

73. Hua, Q., C. B. Knudson, and W. Knudson: Internalization of hyaluronan by chondrocytes occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis. J Cell Sci. 106, 365-75 (1993)

74. Kaya, G., I. Rodriguez, J. L. Jorcano, P. Vassalli, and I. Stamenkovic: Selective suppression of CD44 in keratinocytes of mice bearing an antisense CD44 transgene driven by a tissue-specific promoter disrupts hyaluronate metabolism in the skin and impairs keratinocyte proliferation. Genes & Develop. 11, 996-1007 (1997)