[Frontiers in Bioscience 3, d1060-1096, November 1, 1998]
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CAVEAT LECTOR




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LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION: THE COMING OF THE PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASES

T. Mustelin, J. Brockdorff, A. Gjörloff-Wingren, P. Tailor, S. Han, X. Wang & M. Saxena

Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA

Received 9/10/98 Accepted 9/15/98

TABLE ON CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
2.1. PTPases present in lymphocytes
2.2. The targets and specificity of PTPases in lymphocyte activation
3. Classical PTPases
3.1. CD45 - a positive regulator of T cell activation
3.2. HePTP - a cytosolic leukocyte-specific PTPase
3.3. TCPTP - a PTPase of the endoplasmic reticulum
3.4. SHP1 - a negative regulator of signaling
3.4.1. Role of SHP1 in B cells
3.4.2. The function of SHP1 in Natural Killer Cells
3.4.3. SHP1 in T cell signaling
3.4.4. Role of SHP1 in other hematopoietic receptor systems
3.5. SHP2 - a positive regulator of signaling?
3.5.1. SHP2 in lymphocytes
3.5.2. Function of SHP2 in other hematopoietic receptor systems
3.5.3. SHP2 in nonhematopoietic receptor systems
3.6. PTPases of the PEST-containing group
3.7. PTP-MEG2 - a PTPase with a putative lipid-binding domain
3.8. The band 4.1 homology (or ERM) domain-containing PTPases
4. Dual-specificity protein phosphatases
4.1. VHR, a dual specificity phosphatase of unknown function
4.2. MAP kinase phosphatases
4.3. PTEN
4.4. CDC25 and KAP
5. Low molecular weight PTPases
5.1. LMPTP
5.2. PRL-1, 2 and 3 - isoprenylated nuclear enzymes
6. Concluding remarks
7. Acknowledgements
8. References
9. Entire manuscript
Key words:Review, Phosphatases, PTPases, PTKs, Lck, Fyn, Syk, Zap-70, T cell activation, HePTP, STEP, PCPTP, PTP1B, TCPTP, SHP1, SHP2, PEP, PTP-PEST, PTP-HSCF, PTP-MEG2, PTPH1, PTP-MEG1, FAP-1, PTP-BAS, PTP36, VHR, Pac-1, MKP-1, MKP-2, MKP-3, MKP-4, MKP-X, B23, hVH4, M3/6, PTEN, LMPTP, PRL-1, OV-1, PRL-2, PRL-3

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