[Frontiers in Bioscience, d701-718, July 20, 1998]
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EXCITATORY AMINO ACID NEUROTRANSMISSION. PATHWAYS FOR METABOLISM, STORAGE AND REUPTAKE OF GLUTAMATE IN BRAIN

Monica Palmada and Josep Joan Centelles

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, 08028-Barcelona, Spain

Received 5/7/98 Accepted 5/23/98

3. EXCITATORY AMINO ACIDS RECEPTORS

Excitatory aminoacids (aspartate and glutamate) act through two broad classes of receptors: ion channel-linked ionotropic receptors (iGluR) and metabotropic receptors (mGluR), which are coupled with G-proteins inducing intracellular messenger cascades (12).

There are different types of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in both neurones and glial cells. Table I shows a summary of the main characteristics of those receptors. Classification of receptors has been possible due to the different affinity to specific agonists and antagonists. A summary of those molecules are given in figure 2.

Table 1. Glutamate receptors

Receptor

Component

Transmembrane

Regions

G-Proteins

Transduction systems

Agonists potency

NMDAR1

4

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Open

GLU>NMDA