[Frontiers in Bioscience 3, d59-99, January 15, 1998]

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Graham Pawelec 1, Ed Remarque 2, Yvonne Barnett 3, Rafael Solana 4

1 University of Tübingen, Tübingen, FRG 2, University of Leiden, Leiden, Holland 3, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland 4, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

Received 12/29/97 Accepted 1/5/97


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. What is immunosenescence?
4. Possible causes of immunosenescence
4.1 Haematopoiesis
4.2 Thymus
4.3 Post-thymic aging

5. Mechanisms contributing to immunosenescence
5.1 Accessory cells
5.2 Alterations in signal transduction
5.3 Defects in costimulatory pathways
5.4 Alterations in cytokine production and response

6. Culture models for immunosenescence: the Hayflick Limit applies to normal T cells.
7. Does telomeric end loss contribute to the replicative senescence of normal T cells?
8. Alterations in T cell subsets and markers with aging: is the senescent phenotype due to increases in memory cells and to their "clonal exhaustion"?
8.1 Longevity of naive and memory cells
8.2 Activation-induced cell death and aging

9. Clinical relevance of immunosenescence?
10. Predictors of mortality and longevity
11. Possible approaches to interventionist manipulations
11.1 Vitamins and minerals
11.2 Hormones
11.3 Antioxidants
11.4 Caloric restriction
11.5 Mutations and DNA repair

12. Perspective
13. Acknowledgements
14. References
15. Entire manuscript

Key words: T cells, Aging, Immunosenescence, Immune response, Immunogerontology

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