[Frontiers in Bioscience 3, d944-960, September 1, 1998]

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Jose Russo, Xiaoqi Yang, Yun-Fu Hu, Betsy A. Bove, Yajue Huang, Ismael D.C.G. Silva, Quivo Tahin, Yuli Wu, Nadia Higgy, Abdel Zekri, and Irma H. Russo

Breast Cancer Research Laboratory, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Received 12/17/97 Accepted 7/21/98


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Human Breast Epithelial Cells (HBEC) in Culture
4. Factors Influencing Susceptibility of HBEC to Cell Transformation
4.1. Lobular differentiation
4.2. Genetic predisposition
4.3. Cell immortalization
5. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Immortalization
5.1. Activation of telomerase
5.2. Abrogation of cell cycle control
5.3. Genes preferentially expressed during cell immortalization
6. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Transformation
6.1. Epigenetic mechanisms
6.2. Genetic mechanisms
7. Genomic changes in Immortalization and Transformation of HBEC
7.1. Genomic changes in cell immortalization
7.2. Genomic changes in cell transformation
8. Genomic Changes in Human Breast Lesions
9. Functional Roles of Chromosomes 11 and 17 in Transformed Phenotype Expression of HBEC
10. Summary and Perspectives
11. Acknowledgments
12. References
13. Entire manuscript

Key words: Human Breast Epithelial Cells (HBEC); Cell Immortalization; Cell Transformation; Progression Of Neoplastic Phenotype; Carcinogens; Gene Expression; Calcium; Ca-Binding Protein; Mammary-Derived Growth Inhibitor; H-Ferritin; Gene Mutation; TP53; C-Erbb2; Int-2; C-Myc; Mdm2; Microsatellite Instability; D11S912; D13S260; D13S289; D16S285; Chromosome 11; Chromosome 13; Chromosome 16; Chromosome 17; Microcell-Mediated Chromosome Transfer; Senescence; Growth Inhibition; Anchorage Independent Growth

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