[Frontiers in Bioscience 9, 2972-2988, September 1, 2004]

CURRENT VACCINE ADJUVANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF A DIVERSE CLASS

Charlotte Read Kensil, Annie Xiaoyan Mo and Alemseged Truneh

Antigenics, Inc., 3 Forbes Road, Lexington, MA 02421

FIGURES

Figure 1. Example of Effect of an Adjuvant on Antigen Dose-Sparing and on Antibody Isotype. This illustrates the adjuvant property of antigen dose sparing. C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously at days 0 and 14 with various doses of recombinant B. anthracis protective antigen (PA, obtained as a gift from Dr. Stephen Leppla, NIH) with and without adjuvant QS-21. Serum IgG1 and IgG2a responses specific to the recombinant antigen PA were measured by EIA on serum collected on day 28.

Figure 2. Influence of Adjuvants on Innate and Adaptive Immune System. Adjuvants influence both innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Some influence immunity through interaction with pattern recognition receptors associated with cells of the innate immune system; other adjuvants influence antigen persistence and hence prolong antigen presentation.