[Frontiers in Bioscience 11, 1802-1813, May 1, 2006]

Microarray technology in the investigation of diseases of myocardium with special reference to infection

Shankar Mukherjee, Thomas J. Belbin, David C. Spray, Aparna Mukhopadhyay, Nagajyothi, Louis M. Weiss, and Herbert B. Tanowitz

Departments of Pathology, Medicine, Developmental & Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Overview of the microarray technology
3.1. The Principle of Microarray Technology
3.2. Preparation of the microarray slide
3.3. Synthesis of cDNA probes
3.4. Synthesis of oligonucleotide probes
3.5. Sample preparation and hybridization
3.6. Confocal scanning
3.7. Image analysis and normalization
3.8. Verification of gene expression alterations
4. Use of microarray in cardiovascular disease
4.1. Myocardial ischemic and infarction
4.2. Cardiac hypertrophy
4.3. Dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure
4.4. Pro-inflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species in cardiac hypertrophy
4.5. Hypertension and mechanical injury
4.6. Aortic aneurysm
5. Use of microarray in infectious heart diseases
5.1. Viral and bacterial infections
5.2. Parasitic Heart disease-Chagas' disease
6. Conclusions
7. Acknowledgements
8. References


Microarrays are now routinely employed to characterize gene expression of thousands of genes from a single hybridization. The genome wide gene expression profile aids in the understanding of genes that may be regulated in a particular pathological condition. This paper provides an overview of microarray technology and its recent developments followed by its usage in studies of cardiovascular disease and how it pertains to viral and parasitic infections of the heart.