[Frontiers in Bioscience 11, 2434-2441, September 1, 2006]

Cellular immunology in HIV-1 positive african american women using alcohol and cocaine

Francesco Chiappelli 1, Paul Shapshak 2,3,4,5, Fariba Younai 1, Clyde McCoy 2,6, Bryan Page 2,3,7, and Paolo Prolo 1

1 Division of Oral Biology & Medicine, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668, West-Los Angeles, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90025, 2 Comprehensive Drmicrogram Research Center, Departments of 3 Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 4 Neurology, 5 Pathology, 6 Epidemiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, 7 Department of Anthropology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Subjects and Design
3.2. Samples
3.3. Immunophenotyping
3.4. Plasma Markers & IL-2 Production
3.5. Data Analysis
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Cellular Immune Parameters
4.2. Soluble Immune Parameters
4.3. Fundamental Implications
4.4. Clinical Implications
5. Conclusions
6. Acknowledgements
7. References


Co-use of illicit drugs, in particular cocaine and alcohol, is common among HIV-1+ men and women of different ethnic groups. We compared cohorts of alcohol and cocaine co-users HIV-1+ African American women and in cohorts of drug-free, or methamphetamine users HIV-1+ men. We monitored clinical cellular immune parameters at repeated regular intervals. We found that significant inverse correlations between CD8+CD38+ cells and subpopulations of CD4+ cells distinguished by the expression of CD45RA in HIV-1+ alcohol and cocaine co- users but not in drug-free HIV-1+ patients. Following stratification for CD4+ cell number, we found the CD4+CD45RA+ subpopulation to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the drug user compared to drug-free HIV-1+. Drug abuse may alter the change from the CD4+CD45RA+ to the CD4+CD45RA- phenotype selectively, which recovers in HIV-1+ methamphetamine abusers during treatment from baseline to 4-weeks, as manifested by improved IL-2 production in vitro. of TH1 and TH2 cytokines during progression to AIDS.