[Frontiers in Bioscience 11, 2434-2441, September 1, 2006]

Cellular immunology in HIV-1 positive african american women using alcohol and cocaine

Francesco Chiappelli 1, Paul Shapshak 2,3,4,5, Fariba Younai 1, Clyde McCoy 2,6, Bryan Page 2,3,7, and Paolo Prolo 1

1 Division of Oral Biology & Medicine, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668, West-Los Angeles, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90025, 2 Comprehensive Drmicrogram Research Center, Departments of 3 Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 4 Neurology, 5 Pathology, 6 Epidemiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, 7 Department of Anthropology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Subjects and Design
3.2. Samples
3.3. Immunophenotyping
3.4. Plasma Markers & IL-2 Production
3.5. Data Analysis
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Cellular Immune Parameters
4.2. Soluble Immune Parameters
4.3. Fundamental Implications
4.4. Clinical Implications
5. Conclusions
6. Acknowledgements
7. References

1. ABSTRACT

Co-use of illicit drugs, in particular cocaine and alcohol, is common among HIV-1+ men and women of different ethnic groups. We compared cohorts of alcohol and cocaine co-users HIV-1+ African American women and in cohorts of drug-free, or methamphetamine users HIV-1+ men. We monitored clinical cellular immune parameters at repeated regular intervals. We found that significant inverse correlations between CD8+CD38+ cells and subpopulations of CD4+ cells distinguished by the expression of CD45RA in HIV-1+ alcohol and cocaine co- users but not in drug-free HIV-1+ patients. Following stratification for CD4+ cell number, we found the CD4+CD45RA+ subpopulation to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the drug user compared to drug-free HIV-1+. Drug abuse may alter the change from the CD4+CD45RA+ to the CD4+CD45RA- phenotype selectively, which recovers in HIV-1+ methamphetamine abusers during treatment from baseline to 4-weeks, as manifested by improved IL-2 production in vitro. of TH1 and TH2 cytokines during progression to AIDS.