[Frontiers in Bioscience 11, 2565-2573, September 1, 2006]

Up date of in vitro production of porcine embryos

Takashi Nagai 1, Hiroaki Funahashi 2, Koji Yoshioka3 and Kazuhiro Kikuchi 4

1 National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, 2 Ikenodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0901, Japan, 2 The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530, Japan, 3 National Institute of Animal Health, 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856, Japan, 4 National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Improvement of IVM oocyte quality
3.1. Control of anti-oxidant content in IVM oocytes
3.2. IVM of oocytes under a low oxygen tension
3.3. Importance of cumulus cells during IVM of oocytes
3.4. Step-wise IVM systems
4. Prevention of abnormal fertilization
4.1. Control of polyspermic fertilization from sperm side by changing IVF procedure
4.2. Control of polyspermic fertilization from oocyte and oviduct sides
4.3. Sperm penetration into immature oocytes
5. IVC of IVM-IVF oocytes
6. Perspective
7. Acknowledgements
8. References


There have been intensive attempts to establish reliable in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) methods in pigs. Although a great deal of progress has been made, current IVM-IVF systems still suffer from a low rate and poor quality of in vitro produced embryos . In this review, we will review the recent studies about IVM-IVF of porcine oocytes and the in vitro culture (IVC) system, especially modified in vitro production (IVP) system that produces high quality of porcine blastocysts. We then try to suggest practical ways to solve the problems mentioned above in the pigs.