[Frontiers in Bioscience 13, 62-70, January 1, 2008]

The role of toll-like receptors in macrophages

Claire E. McCoy, Luke A.J. O'Neill

Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. The discovery and characterisation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
3.1. TLR4
3.2. TLR2
3.3. TLR3
3.4. TLR5
3.5. TLR9, TLR8 and TLR7
3.6. TLR expression on macrophages
4. Role of TLRs in phagocytosis
4.1. Role of TLRs in the phagosome
4.2. Role of TLRs in the formation of pseudopods
4.3. Role of TLRs in phagasome maturation
4.4. Role of TLRs in the expression of genes required for phagocytosis
5. Role of TLRs in antigen processing and antigen presentation
6. Role of TLRs in the adaptive response
7. References


Macrophages play diverse roles including but not limited to homeostatic clearance, detection of invading pathogens and induction of the adaptive immune response. Since their discovery, it has become clear that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can play a major role in these macrophage functions. This review will describe the TLRs, their signalling pathways and their role in macrophage function.