[Frontiers in Bioscience 14, 2959-2969, January 1, 2009]

The GS (genetic selection) Principle

David L. Abel

The Gene Emergence Project, The Origin-of-Life Foundation, Inc., 113 Hedgewood Dr. Greenbelt, MD 20770-1610 USA


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Where selection must occur
4. The requirements of selection
5. The instantiation of formalism into physicality
6. The GS (Genetic Selection) Principle
7. The capabilities of natural selection
8. The limits of physics and chemistry
9. The genetic code is conceptually ideal 10. Perspective 11. Acknowledgement 12. References


The GS (Genetic Selection) Principle states that biological selection must occur at the nucleotide-sequencing molecular-genetic level of 3'5' phosphodiester bond formation. After-the-fact differential survival and reproduction of already-living phenotypic organisms (ordinary natural selection) does not explain polynucleotide prescription and coding. All life depends upon literal genetic algorithms. Even epigenetic and "genomic" factors such as regulation by DNA methylation, histone proteins and microRNAs are ultimately instructed by prior linear digital programming. Biological control requires selection of particular configurable switch-settings to achieve potential function. This occurs largely at the level of nucleotide selection, prior to the realization of any integrated biofunction. Each selection of a nucleotide corresponds to the setting of two formal binary logic gates. The setting of these switches only later determines folding and binding function through minimum-free-energy sinks. These sinks are determined by the primary structure of both the protein itself and the independently prescribed sequencing of chaperones. The GS Principle distinguishes selection of existing function (natural selection) from selection for potential function (formal selection at decision nodes, logic gates and configurable switch-settings).