[Frontiers in Bioscience 17, 1917-1930, January 1, 2012]
Nuclear receptor control of opposing macrophage phenotypes in cardiovascular disease
Ryan A. Frieler1,2, Saiprasad Ramnarayanan1, Richard M. Mortensen1,2,3
1Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 2Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, 3Internal Medicine, Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes Division, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Macrophages have important physiological roles and display a high degree of heterogeneous phenotypes in response to a variety of stimuli. In particular, the spectrum of alternatively activated macrophages has been a focus because many lines of evidence indicate a cardioprotective role for this macrophage phenotype. This phenotype is controlled in part by opposing nuclear transcription factors including the PPARs that stimulate alternative activation and the recently recognized role of the mineralocorticoid receptor in stimulating classically activated macrophages. This review highlights some of the recent findings involving alternatively activated macrophages and these nuclear receptors in cardiovascular disease.