[Frontiers in Bioscience 19, 1291-1299, June 1, 2014]

Neuronal oscillations in Parkinson disease

Mark Witcher1, Rosalyn Moran2, Stephen B, Tatter1, Adrian W, Laxton1

1Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University, 2Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Abnormal oscillations in subcortical nuclei and related circuits in PD
3.1. Abnormal oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and globus pallidus
3.2. Abnormalities in basal ganglia-cortical connections
3.3. Abnormalities in cortico-cortical connections
4. Abnormal neuronal oscillations associated with bradykinesia and rigidity differ from tremor
5. Disruption of abnormal oscillations relates to the therapeutic effectiveness of DBS
6. Conclusions
7. References

1. ABSTRACT

Parkinson Disease (PD), characterized by tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders in the world. The pathological hallmark of PD is the loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra and other brain regions. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which dopaminergic cell loss leads to the motor manifestations of PD are yet to be fully elucidated. A growing body of evidence has revealed abnormal neuronal oscillations within and between multiple brain regions in PD. Unique oscillatory patterns are associated with specific motor abnormalities in PD. Therapies, such as dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation that disrupt these abnormal neuronal oscillatory patterns produce symptomatic improvement in PD patients. These findings emphasize the importance of abnormal neuronal oscillations in the pathophysiology of PD, making the disruption of these oscillatory patterns a promising target in the development of effective PD treatments.