[Frontiers In Bioscience, Elite, 10, 344-351, March 1, 2018]

Modifying progression of aging and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases by probiotics and synbiotics

Huey Shi Lye1, Yee Teng Lee2, Shao Yin Ooi1, Lai Kuan Teh3, Lay Ngor Lim3, Loo Keat Wei2

1Department of Agricultural and Food Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia, 2Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia, 3Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Aging in relation to neurodegenerative diseases
4. Microbiome, one carbon metabolism and aging
5. Neurodegenerative diseases and synbiotic effect
5.1. Probiotics can change the manifestation of diseases
5.2. Synbiotic
6. Summary and prospective
7. Acknowledgement
8. References

1. ABSTRACT

Aging, which affects most of the multi-cellular organisms, is due to a potentially complex set of mechanisms that collectively cause a time-dependent decline of physiological functions. Aging restrains longevity and leads to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and lacunar stroke. Human microbiota is now considered to have a strong impact on the progression of aging. The impact of aging and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases can be reduced by using probiotics, or preferably by combining probiotics and prebiotics, also known as synbiotics, that can drastically modify the composition of gut microbiome.

8. REFERENCES

1. A Walker, C Aspalter: The concept of active aging. In: active ageing in Asia. Routledge, 14-30 (2014)

2. SA Samad, N Mansor: Population ageing and social protection in Malaysia. Malays J Econ Studies 50, 139-156 (2013)

3. D Harman: The aging process. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78, 7124-7128 (1981)
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.78.11.7124

4. M Davidovic, G Sevo, P Svorcan, DP Milosevic, N Despotovic, P Erceg: Old age as a privilege of the “selfish ones”. Aging Dis 1, 139-146 (2014)

5. C López-Otín, MA Blasco, L Partridge, M Serrano, G Kroemer: The hallmarks of aging. Cell 153, 1194-1217 (2013)
DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.039

6. TC Goldsmith: On the programmed/non-programmed aging controversy. Biochemistry Mosc 77, 729-732 (2012)
DOI: 10.1134/S000629791207005X

7. J Campisi, L Robert: Cell senescence: role in aging and age-related diseases. Interdiscip Top Gerontol 39, 45-61 (2014)
DOI: 10.1159/000358899

8. A Freund, AV Orjalo, PY Desprez, J Campisi: Inflammatory networks during cellular senescence: causes and consequences. Trends Mol Med 16, 238-246 (2010)
DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2010.03.003

9. A Brunet, SL Berger: Epigenetics of aging and aging-related disease. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 69, 17-20 (2014)
DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glu042

10. MF Mendez, AM McMurtray. Neurodegenerative disorders. In: Encyclopedia of Stress (Second edition). Eds: G Fink, B McEwen, ER de Kloet, R Rubin, G Chrousos, A Steptoe, N Rose, I Craig, G Feuerstein, Elsevier, Netherlands (2007)
DOI: 10.1016/B978-012373947-6.00575-4

11. World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Dementia. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs362/en/

12. T Niccoli, L Partridge: Ageing as a risk factor for disease. Curr Biol 22, 741-752 (2012)
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.024

13. G Tosto, TD Bird, DA Bennett: National institute on aging late-onset alzheimer disease/national cell repository for alzheimer disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) Family Study Group. The role of cardiovascular risk factors and stroke in familial alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurol 73, 1231-1237 (2016)
DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.2539

14. Alzheimer’s Association: Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 10, 47-92 (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jalz.2014.02.001

15. SS Adav, SK Sze: Insight of brain degenerative protein modifications in the pathology of neurodegeneration and dementia by proteomic profiling. Mol Brain 9, 1-22 (2016)
DOI: 10.1186/s13041-016-0272-9

16. National Institutes of Health (NIH): Preventing Alzheimer’s disease: what do we know? National Institute on Aging, 1-24 (2012)

17. A Arboix, L Blanco-Rojas: Cognitive impairment in ischemic lacunar stroke. Eur Neurol Rev 8, 144-148 (2013)
DOI: 10.17925/ENR.2013.08.02.144

18. JM Wardlaw: What causes lacunar stroke? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76, 617-619 (2005)
DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.2004.039982

19. M Hollander, ML Bots, AI Del Sol, PJ Koudstaal, JCM Witteman, DE Grobbee, A Hofman, MMB Breteler: Carotid plaques increase the risk of stroke and subtypes of cerebral infarction in asymptomatic elderly. Circulation 105, 2872-2877 (2002)
DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000018650.58984.75

20. X Chen, W Wen, KJ Anstey, PS Sachdev: Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of lacunar infarcts in a community sample. Neurology 73, 266-272 (2009)
DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181aa52ea

21. Z Cai, W He, CY Peng, J Zhou, QL Xu, ZS Wu: The prevalence of lacunar infarct decreases with aging in the elderly: a case-controlled analysis. Clin Interv Aging 11, 733-738 (2016)
DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S108166

22. C Loeb, C Gandolfo, R Croce, M Conti: Dementia associated with lacunar infarction. Stroke 23, 1225-1229 (1992)
DOI: 10.1161/01.STR.23.9.1225

23. DA Snowdon, LH Greiner, JA Mortimer, KP Riley, PA Greiner, WR Markesbery: Brain infarction and the clinical expression of alzheimer disease: the nun study. JAMA 277, 813-817 (1997)
DOI: 10.1001/jama.1997.03540340047031

24. MJ Villanueva-Millán, P Pérez-Matute, JA Oteo: Gut microbiota: a key player in health and disease: a review focused on obesity. J Physiol Biochem 71, 509-525 (2015)
DOI: 10.1007/s13105-015-0390-3

25. EM Quigley: Gut bacteria in health and disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 9, 560-569 (2013)

26. MJ Bull, NT Plummer: Part 1: the human gut microbiome in health and disease. J Integr Med 13, 17-22 (2014)

27. CA Janeway Jr, P Travers, M Walport, MJ Shlomchik: The mucosal immune system. In: Immunobiology. The immune system in health and disease, Sect 10. Eds: CA Janeway Jr, P Travers, M Walport, MJ Shlomchik, Garland Science, United States (2001)

28. G Eberl: A new vision of immunity: homeostasis of the superorganism. Mucosal Immunol 3, 450-460 (2010)
DOI: 10.1038/mi.2010.20

29. HM Blottière, J Doré: The gut microbiota: an integrated interactive system. In: The human microbiota and chronic disease: Dysbiosis as a cause of human pathology, Sect 1 An introduction to the human tissue microbiome. Eds: L Nibali, B Henderson, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey (2016)
DOI: 10.1002/9781118982907

30. LK Wei, S Menon, LR Griffiths, SH Gan: Signaling pathway genes for blood pressure, folate and cholesterol levels among hypertensives: an epistasis analysis. J Hum Hypertens 29, 99-104 (2015)
DOI: 10.1038/jhh.2014.53

31. SR Williams, Q Yang, F Chen, X Liu, KL Keene, P Jacques, WM Chen, G Weinstein, FC Hsu, A Beiser, L Wang: Genome-wide meta-analysis of homocysteine and methionine metabolism identifies five one carbon metabolism loci and a novel association of ALDH1L1 with ischemic stroke. PLoS Genet 10, 1-13 (2014)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004214

32. LK Wei, H Sutherland, A Au, E Camilleri, LM Haupt, SH Gan, LR Griffiths: A potential epigenetic marker mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels contributes to the risk of ischemic stroke. BioMed Res Int 2015, 167976 (2015)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/167976

33. J Lehotský, B Tothová, M Kovalská, D Dobrota, A Beňová, D Kalenská, P Kaplán: Role of homocysteine in the ischemic stroke and development of ischemic tolerance. Front Neurosci 10, 1-16 (2016)
DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00538

34. M Rossi, A Amaretti, S Raimondi: Folate production by probiotic bacteria. Nutrients 3, 118-134 (2011)
DOI: 10.3390/nu3010118

35. BN Manolescu, E Oprea, IC Farcasanu, M Berteanu, C Cercasov: Homocysteine and vitamin therapy in stroke prevention and treatment: a review. Acta Biochim Pol 57, 467-477 (2010)

36. RS Beard, JJ Reynolds, SE Bearden: Hyperhomocysteinemia increases permeability of the blood-brain barrier by NMDA receptor-dependent regulation of adherens and tight junctions. Blood 118, 2007-2014 (2011)
DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-02-338269

37. JR Kelly, PJ Kennedy, JF Cryan, TG Dinan, G Clarke, NP Hyland: Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders. Front Cell Neurosci 9, 392 (2015)
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00392

38. V Braniste, M Al-Asmakh, C Kowal, F Anuar, A Abbaspour, M Tóth, A Korecka, N Bakocevic, LG Ng, P Kundu, B Gulyás: The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice. Sci Transl Med 6, 158 (2014)
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009759

39. M Carabotti, A Scirocco, MA Maselli, C Severi: The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems. Ann Gastroenterol 28, 203 (2015)

40. M Jandzinski: Manipulation of the microbiome and its impact on functional recovery following ischemic stroke. Honors Scholar Theses, 1-41 (2015)

41. SJ Lahtinen, L Tammela, J Korpela, R Parhiala, H Ahokoski, H Mykkänen, SJ Salminen: Probiotics modulate the Bifidobacterium microbiota of elderly nursing home residents. Age 31, 59-66 (2009)
DOI: 10.1007/s11357-008-9081-0

42. S Rampelli, M Candela, M Severgnini, E Biagi, S Turroni, M Roselli, P Carnevali, I Donini, PA Brigidi: Probiotics-containing biscuit modulates the intestinal microbiota in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 17, 166-172 (2013)
DOI: 10.1007/s12603-012-0372-x

43. A Everard, S Matamoros, L Geurts, NM Delzenne, PD Cani: Saccharomyces boulardii administration changes gut microbiota and reduces hepatic steatosis, low-grade inflammation, and fat mass in obese and type 2 diabetic db/db mice. MBio 5, e01011-14 (2014)
DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01011-14

44. E Akbari, Z Asemi, RD Kakhaki, F Bahmani, E Kouchaki, OR Tamtaji, GA Hamidi, M Salami: Effect of probiotic supplementation on cognitive function and metabolic status in alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind and controlled trial. Front Aging Neurosci 8, 1-8 (2016)
DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2016.00256

45. H Chui: Dementia due to subcortical ischemic vascular disease. Clin Cornerstone 3, 40-51 (2001)
DOI: 10.1016/S1098-3597(01)90047-X

46. S Khalesi, J Sun, N Buys, R Jayasinghe: Effect of probiotics on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Hypertension 64, 897-903 (2014)
DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03469

47. JY Dong, IMY Szeto, K Makinen, Q Gao, J Wang, LQ Qin, Y Zhao: Effect of probiotic fermented milk on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr 110, 1188-1194 (2013)
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114513001712

48. L Seppo, T Jauhiainen, T Poussa, R Korpela: A fermented milk high in bioactive peptides has a blood pressure–lowering effect in hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 326-330 (2003)

49. K Aihara, O Kajimoto, H Hirata, R Takahashi, Y Nakamura: Effect of powdered fermented milk with Lactobacillus helveticus on subjects with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 257-265 (2005)
DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2005.10719473

50. M Gómez-Guzmán, M Toral, M Romero, R Jiménez, P Galindo, M Sánchez, MJ Zarzuelo, M Olivares, J Gálvez, J Duarte: Antihypertensive effects of probiotics Lactobacillus strains in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mol Nutr Food Res 59, 2326-2336 (2015)
DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201500290

51. GR Gibson, MB Roberfroid: Dietary modulation of the human colonie microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 1401-1412 (1995)

52. S Patel, A Goyal: The current trends and future perspectives of prebiotics research: a review. 3 Biotech 2, 115-125 (2012)
DOI: 10.1007/s13205-012-0044-x

53. P Su, A Henriksson, H Mitchell: Prebiotics enhance survival and prolong the retention period of specific probiotic inocula in an in vivo murine model. J Appl Microbiol 103, 2392-2400 (2007)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03469.x

54. OO Adebola, O Corcoran, WA Morgan: Synbiotics: the impact of potential prebiotics inulin, lactulose and lactobionic acid on the survival and growth of lactobacilli probiotics. J Funct Foods 10, 75–84 (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2014.05.010

55. PK Gopal, J Prasad, HS Gill: Effects of the consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10TM) and galacto-oligosaccharides on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract in human subjects. Nutr Res 23, 1313-1328 (2003)
DOI: 10.1016/S0271-5317(03)00134-9

56. L Piirainen, RA Kekkonen, K Kajander, T Ahlroos, S Tynkkynen, R Nevala, RKorpela: In school-aged children a combination of galacto-oligosaccharides and Lactobacillus GG increases bifidobacteria more than Lactobacillus GG on its own. Ann Nutr Metab 52, 204-208 (2008)
DOI: 10.1159/000138124

57. DD Gallaher, J Khil: The effect of synbiotics on colon carcinogenesis in rats. J Nutr 129, 1483S-1487S (1999)

58. S Fujimori, K Gudis, K Mitsui, T Seo, M Yonezawa, S Tanaka, A Tatsuguchi, C Sakamoto: A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of synbiotic versus probiotic or prebiotic treatment to improve the quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis. Nutrition 25, 520-525 (2009)
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2008.11.017

Abbreviations: SASP: Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype

Key Words: Microbiome, Probiotics, Aging, Dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Lacunar Stroke, Homocysteine, Synbiotics, Review

Send correspondence to: Loo Keat Wei, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Bandar Barat, 31900, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia, Tel: +605-4688888, Fax: +605-4671676, E-mail: wynnelkw@gmail.com