[Frontiers In Bioscience, Landmark, 23, 1391-1406, March 1, 2018]

Electromagnetic fields and optomechanics in cancer diagnostics and treatment

Vahid Salari,1 Shabir Barzanjeh2, Michal Cifra3, Christoph Simon4,5, Felix Scholkmann6,7, Zahra Alirezaei8, Jack A. Tuszynski9, 10

1Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran, 2Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria, 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria, 3Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Chabersk´a 57, 182 00 Prague, Czech Republic, 4Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta, Canada, 5Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta, Canada, 6Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland, 7Research Ofce for Complex Physical and Biological Systems (ROCoS), CH-8038 Zurich, Switzerland, 8Department of Medical Physics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 9Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton T6G 1Z2, Alberta, Canada 10Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Electromagnetic fields affect cancer cells
4. Microtubules
4.1. Monitoring mechanical vibrations of microtubules via optomechanical coupling
5. Summary
6. Acknowledgment
7. References

1. ABSTRACT

In this paper, we discuss biological effects of electromagnetic (EM) fields in the context of cancer biology. In particular, we review the nanomechanical properties of microtubules (MTs), the latter being one of the most successful targets for cancer therapy. We propose an investigation on the coupling of electromagnetic radiation to mechanical vibrations of MTs as an important basis for biological and medical applications. In our opinion, optomechanical methods can accurately monitor and control the mechanical properties of isolated MTs in a liquid environment. Consequently, studying nanomechanical properties of MTs may give useful information for future applications to diagnostic and therapeutic technologies involving non-invasive externally applied physical fields. For example, electromagnetic fields or high intensity ultrasound can be used therapeutically avoiding harmful side effects of chemotherapeutic agents or classical radiation therapy.

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Key Words: Electromagnetic Fields, Microtubule, Optomechanics, Cancer, Diagnostic, Treatment, Review

Send correspondence to: Jack A Tuszynski, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada, Tel: 780-432 8906, Fax: 780-432 9906, E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca