[Frontiers In Bioscience, Landmark, 23, 1422-1444, March 1, 2018]

Modified lipoproteins as biomarkers of atherosclerosis

Alexander N. Orekhov1,2, Igor A. Sobenin3

1Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, Russian Federation, 143025 Moscow, Russia, 2Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Federation, 125315 Moscow, Russia, 3Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125315 Moscow, Russia

TABLE OF CONTENT

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
2.1. The paradigm of lipid theory of atherogenesis and the value of low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein as risk factors
2.2. The role of modified LDL in atherosclerosis
2.3. Evaluation of LDL and HDL as risk factors: AHA recommendations
3. High density lipoprotein in atherogenesis
3.1. Epidemiological data demonstrating negative association of HDL with atherosclerotic disease
3.2. Possible mechanisms of anti-atherogenic effects of HDL
3.3. Unsuccessful attempts to use HDL increase against atherosclerosis
3.4. Evaluation of the emerging potential biomarkers
4. Modified ldl in atherogenesis
4.1. Oxidized LDL: myth or reality?
4.2. Known modified LDL types present in vivo
4.3. Mechanisms of modified LDL-induced atherogenesis
4.4. Probing for the role of modified LDL in atherosclerosis: in vitro and clinical studies
5. Studies of desialylated LDL
6. Conclusion
7. Acknowledgement
8. References

1. ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the search for novel therapies and diagnostic markers remain major problems of modern medicine. Currently available therapeutic approaches are often not sufficiently effective, probably due to the complexity of the disease mechanisms. This review focuses on the evaluation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) as risk factors of atherosclerosis. We summarize the current paradigm of LDL involvement in atherogenesis and HDL presumably protective properties. We next discuss the available evidence for the protective effect of HDL and the consequences of HDL dysfunction. Finally, we question the currently widely accepted hypothesis of the central role of oxidized LDL in atherogenesis and present an alternative concept of multiple modification of LDL that confers its pro-atherogenic properties.

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Key Words: Atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; LDL; HDL; modified LDL; lipidosis

Send correspondence to: Alexander N. Orekhov, Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, Russian Federation, 143025 Moscow, Russia, Tel: +7 903 169 08 66, Fax: +7 903 169 08 66, E-mail: a.h.opexob@gmail.com