[Frontiers In Bioscience, Landmark, 24, 983-993, March 1, 2019]

Regulation of follicular development and differentiation by intra-ovarian factors and endocrine hormones

Yi-Xun Liu1, Yan Zhang1,2, Yuan-Yuan Li1, Xi-Ming Liu2, Xiu-Xia Wang1,2, Cui-Lian Zhang3, Cui-Fang Hao4, Shou-Long Deng1

1State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China, 2Changsha Reproductive Medicine Hospital, Hunan, Changsha, 410205, China, 3Reproductive Medicine Center of People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450003, China, 4Reproduction Medical Center, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai 264000, China

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Early primordial germ cell development
4. Anti-apoptotic action of stem cell factor on oocytes in primordial follicles
5. Interaction and communication of granulosa cells with oocyte
6. Testosterone induces down-regulation of follicular growth and differentiation at the early stage by factor 9 and forkhead box-3a
7. Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling are involved in the regulation of follicular development
8. Inhibin inhibits FSH action by suppressing its receptor expression in cultured rat granulosa cells
9. Anti-ovarian function of GnRH/GnRH antagonists
10. Synergism between granulosa and theca-interstitial cells in estrogen biosynthesis
11. Remarks and conclusion
12. Acknowledgment
13. References

1. ABSTRACT

Primordial germ cell migration and homing within the gonadal ridge during early embryo development requires oocyte-secreted polypeptide, growth factors, growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), bone morphogenetic proteins, stem cell factor (SCF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). During embryogenesis, the germ cells migrate into developing gonads and undergo intra-ovarian development which involves the contact of primordial germ cells with other cells. Further follicular development and differentiation is tightly regulated by hormones and by intraovarian regulators. Maturation of cumulus-oocyte complexes and ovulation are directly controlled by FSH and LH and requires activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in granulosa cells. The selection of dominant follicles is driven by a series of proliferation and apoptotic events. Together, the available data suggests that follicular development is regulated both by systemic and local factors.

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Key Words: Primordial germ cell, Follicle, Granulosa, Growth factor, Hormone, Review

Send correspondence to: Yi-Xun Liu, State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China, Tel: 86-010-64807038, Fax: 86-010-64807038, E-mail: liuyx@ioz.ac.cn