[Frontiers in Bioscience, Elite, 12, 139-149, Jan 1, 2020]

Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol in Alzheimer’s disease

Yelluru Lakshmisha Rao1, Bolumbu Ganaraja2, Teresa Joy1, Mangala M. Pai1, Sheetal Dinkar Ullal3, Bukkambudhi V. Murlimanju1

1Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India-575001, 2Department of Physiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India-575001, 3Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India-575001

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
3. Treatments for AD
4. Resveratrol (RSV)
    4.1. Chemical structure of RSV
    4.2. Sources of RSV
    4.3. Neuroprotective effects of RSV
      4.3.1. Activation of SIRT1
      4.3.2. Effect of RSV on microglia
      4.3.3. Effect of RSV on amyloid plaque formation
    4.4. Bio-availability of RSV
    4.5. Adverse effects of RSV
    4.6. Drug interaction and safety of RSV
5. Conclusion
6. References

1. ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is commonly seen in older individuals. This is characterized by cognitive dysfunction, which leads to dementia. Pharmacological treatments for AD are mainly targeted on its symptoms like memory loss and cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology involved in AD is intra-neuronal accumulation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein as neurofibrillary tangle and extra cellular beta amyloid plaque deposition, which is due to oxidative stress. Here we review the neuro-protective effects of Resveratrol (RSV) and its treatment efficacy in AD. RSV is a naturally available polyphenolic compound, which has antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties. RSV crosses blood brain barrier and exerts its antioxidant effect by enhancing the anti-oxidant enzymes. RSV is involved in Sirtuin (SIRT1) mediated lifespan extension activity. RSV has reduced glial activation and helped in increasing the hippocampal neurogenesis. RSV was able to decrease the expression of amyloid precursor protein, along with improvement of spatial working memory. Since RSV acts as an antioxidant, it can be safely used as oral drug.

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Abbreviations: AD, Alzheimer’s disease; RSV, Resveratrol; SIRT1, Sirtuin; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; AChE, acetylcholine esterase; NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; PGC-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha; COX 1, cyclooxygenase 1; CA 3, cornu ammonis 3; NO, nitric oxide; ROS, reactive oxygen species; NOS, nitric oxide synthase;

Key Words: Alzheimer’s disease; Antioxidant effect; Dementia; Resveratrol, Review

Send correspondence to: Bukkambudhi V. Murlimanju, Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore – 575004, India, Tel: 91-824 2211746, Fax: 91-824 2421283, E-mail: flutemist@gmail.com