[Frontiers in Bioscience 3, d269-287, March 1, 1998]
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CONTROL OF VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE AND ENDOTHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION AND ITS IMPLICATION IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Ioakim Spyridopoulos 1,2 and Vicente Andrés 1,3

1 Department of Medicine (Cardiology) and Department of Biomedical Research, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts, University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02135, USA, 2 Present address: Dept. of Cardiology, Medizinische Klinik III, University of Tuebingen,Otfried-Mueller-Str.10, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany, 3 Instituto de Biomedicina, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 46010-Valencia, Spain

Received 2/9/98 Accepted 2/16/98

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Discussion:
3.1. Molecular control of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
3.1.1. Vascular smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and the pathogenesis of vascular obstructive lesions
3.1.2. Positive control of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and cell-cycle gene expression
3.1.3. Negative control of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
3.1.4. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by extracellular matrix components
3.1.5. Antiproliferative therapies to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell hyperplasia
3.2. Molecular control of endothelial cell proliferation
3.2.1. Role of confluency and cell density on endothelial cell growth control
3.2.2. Angiogenesis
3.2.2.1. Protein kinase C
3.2.2.2. Extracellular matrix
3.2.2.3. Therapeutic angiogenesis
3.2.3. Atherosclerosis and endothelial injury
3.2.3.1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
3.2.3.2 .Irradiation
3.2.3.3. Oxidative stress
4. Perspectives
5. Acknowledgments
6. References
7. Entire manuscript

Key words: Vascular smooth muscle cells, Endothelial cells, cell cycle, Atherosclerosis, Restenosis, Angiogenesis, CDKs, cyclins, CDK inhibitors