[Frontiers in Bioscience E2, 1448-1459, June 1, 2010]

Antioxidant defense system rhythms in crustaceans and possible roles for melatonin

Fabio Everton Maciel, Marcio Alberto Geihs, Jose Maria Monserrat, Luiz Eduardo Maia Nery

Postgraduate Program in Comparative Animal Physiology, Institute of Biological Science, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Italia Av., Km 8, Rio Grande - RS, 96201-900, Brazil


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Rhythmic variations of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) in different tissues of crustaceans
4. Possible mechanisms of regulation for ADS
5. Effects of melatonin on vertebrate ADS
6. Melatonin variations in crustaceans
7. Effects of melatonin in crustacean ADS
8. Conclusions and perspectives
9. Acknowledgements
10. References


Animals in their habitats are subject to many cyclical patterns for different environmental parameters, resulting in selective pressure to develop biological rhythms for metabolism. To avoid oxidative stress, a rhythmic variation in the antioxidant defense system (ADS) should be associated with aerobic metabolic rhythms. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest findings on rhythmic variations of the ADS in different tissues of crustaceans, as well as possible mechanisms for their regulation. In vertebrates, melatonin has been shown to be an important molecule in the regulation of the ADS and to be a high-capacity scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Given that this indoleamine has been identified in crustaceans, we also discuss the possible implications of this molecule in crustacean ADS regulation.