[Frontiers in Bioscience S2, 153-167, January 1, 2010]

Chemokines and chemokine receptors in arthritis

Zoltan Szekanecz1, Aniko Vegvari1, Zoltan Szabo1, Alisa E. Koch2,3

1Division of Rheumatology, Third Department of Medicine, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Sciences Center, Debrecen, Hungary, Europe, 2Veterans' Administration, Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 3University of Michigan Health System, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in arthritis
3.1. CXC chemokines in arthritis
3.2. CC chemokines
3.3. C and CX3C chemokines in RA
3.4. Chemokine receptors in arthritis
4. Functional aspects of chemokines and chemokine receptors in synovial inflammation
4.1. Inflammatory and homeostatic chemokines in RA
4.2. The functional role of chemokine receptor expression patterns in inflammation
4.3. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in synovial angiogenesis and RA-related atherosclerosis
4.4. Regulation of chemokine production during leukocyte recruitment
5. Targeting of chemokines and chemokine receptors
5.1. Non-specific agents
5.2. Specific chemokine and chemokine receptor targeting
6. Summary
7. Acknowledgement
8. References


Chemokines are involved in leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites, such as the synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is a structural and a functional classification of chemokines. The former includes four groups: CXC, CC, C and CX3C chemokines. Chemokines may also be either inflammatory or homeostatic, however, these functions often overlap. Anti-chemokine and anti-chemokine receptor targeting may be therapeutically used in the future biological therapy of arthritis. Most data in this field have been obtained from animal models of arthritis as only very few human RA trials have been completed. However, it is very likely that various specific chemokine and chemokine receptor antagonists will be developed and administered to RA patients.