[Frontiers in Bioscience S2, 239-255, January 1, 2010]

Effects of surface properties and bioactivation of biomaterials on endothelial cells

Emmanuelle Monchaux1,2, Patrick Vermette1,2

1Laboratoire de Bioingenierie et de Biophysique de l'Universite de Sherbrooke, Department of Chemical and Biotechnological Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, boul. de l'Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1K 2R1, 2Research Centre on Aging, Institut universitaire de geriatrie de Sherbrooke, 1036, rue Belvedere sud, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1H 4C4


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. The endothelial tissue and its matrix
3.1. Morphological and functional heterogeneity
3.1.1. Morphological diversity
3.1.2. Functional diversity
3.2. Endothelial cell - matrix interactions
3.2.1. Cell-ECM interactions
3.2.2. Vascular basement membrane
3.3. Formation of blood vessels
3.3.1. Context and initiation
3.3.2. Proliferation and migration
3.3.3. Stabilization and maturation
4. Interactions between endothelial cells and biomaterial surfaces
4.1. Surface properties and the mechanical environment
4.1.1. Physico-chemical properties
4.1.2. The mechanical environment
4.2. Pre-coatings made of matrix proteins
4.2.1. Protein coatings
4.2.2. Protein-surface interaction and cell adhesion
4.3. Grafting of peptides
4.3.1. Sequence and receptor selectivity
4.3.2. Immobilization and cell responses
4.4. Growth factor immobilization
4.4.1. Cross-talk between integrins and growth factor receptors
4.4.2. Surface-bound growth factors
5. Conclusions and perspectives
6. Acknowledgements
7. References


Interactions between vascular endothelial cells (EC) and materials are central to biomedical applications such as vascular graft endothelialization or vascularization of an engineered tissue substitute. To improve implant success, biomaterial surfaces are designed to modulate EC adhesion and responses. In vivo, EC line all blood vessels; their morphology, function and associated matrix are adapted to and specific for the local microenvironment. To enhance EC adhesion and growth, surface treatments have been developed that modify material surface physico-chemical and mechanical properties. Materials may also be coated with bioactive molecules such as proteins from the matrix, peptides and/or growth factors to study and control EC behaviour. The aim of this review is therefore to give an overview of current knowledge related to EC and their matrix environment in vivo and their responses to synthetic surfaces in vitro.