[Frontiers in Bioscience S2, 422-431, January 1, 2010]

Biological and clinical markers in colorectal cancer: state of the art

Alessandro Cappellani1, Maria Di Vita1, Antonio Zanghi1, Pierfrancesco Veroux2, Andrea Cavallaro3, Emanuele Lo Menzo4, Bruno Cacopardo5, Vincenzo Canzonieri6, Paolo Murabito7, Umberto Tirelli8, Massimiliano Berretta8

1Department of Surgery, General and Breast Surgery,University Hospital,Catania, Italy, 2Department of Surgery, Transplantation and Advanced Technologie, University Hospital, Catania, Italy; Vascular Surgery and Organ Transplant Unit Catania University Hospital, 3University of Catania, Research Fellow in Surgical Pathology, University Hospital , Catania , Italy, 4University of Maryland, Division of Laparoscopic and Bariatric Surgery, Baltimore, MD, USA, 5University of Catania, Department of Internal Medicine, Garibaldi-Nesima Hospital, Catania, Italy, 6Division of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Aviano (PN), Italy, 7 Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University Hospital, Catania, Italy, 8Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Aviano (PN), Italy


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Screening setting
3.1. Stool tests
3.1.1. FOBt
3.1.2. Fecal DNA
3.1.3. SFRP-1
3.2. Serum and urine
3.2.1. P53
3.2.2. Others
3.2.3. SELDI TOFS MS Alpha defensin C3A Anaphilatoxin Diacetylspermin
3.3. Hereditary cancers setting
3.3.1. FAP (APC)
3.3.2. HNPCC (MSI)
4. Evident cancer disease setting
4.1. CEA
4.2. CA 1-9
5. Molecular markers
5.1. Adhesion
5.1.1. Cadherin/catenin
5.1.2. Mucins
5.1.3. Integrins
5.1.4. Osteopontin
5.1.5. CD44
5.2. Invasion
5.2.1. Metalloproteases
5.2.2. Cathepsines
5.2.3. uPA and PAI
5.3. Angiogenesis
5.3.1. VEGF
5.3.2. Thymidine phosphorilases
5.3.3. Inhibitors of angiogenesis
5.4. Cell growth
5.4.1. EGFR
5.4.2. K RAS
5.4.3. APC
5.5. Cell survival
6. Conclusione
7. Acknowledgements
8. References


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the World's third most common cancer. Its prognosis is closely related to the disease stage at the time of diagnosis. Here we review the role of clinical biomarkers (tissue, serum, and faecal) in the management of CRC. Molecular studies have recently widened the opportunity for testing new possible markers, but actually, only few markers can be recommended for practical use in clinic. In the next future the hope is to have a complete panel of clinical biomarkers to use in every setting of CRC disease, and at the same time: 1) to receive information about prognostic significance by their expression and 2) to be oriented in the choice of the adequate treatment.