[Frontiers in Bioscience E3, 663-689, January 1, 2011]

Recent advances in nano-based electrochemical biosensors: application in diagnosis and monitoring of diseases

Rodrigo M. Iost1, Welter C. Silva2 , Joao M. Madurro3, Ana G. Brito-Madurro 4, Lucas F. Ferreira5, Frank N. Crespilho1

1Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170 Santo Andre,SP, Brasil, 2Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina, PI, Brasil, 3Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400-902 Uberlandia-MG, Brasil, 4Instituto de Genetica e Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400-902 Uberlandia-MG, Brasil, 5Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, 39100-000 Diamantina-MG, Brasil


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Nanomaterials and electrochemical biosensors: different paths to the same goal
4. Electrochemical DNA biosensors
4.1. DNA Structure
4.2. Conventional methods for gene analysis
4.3. New electrochemical approaches in DNA biosensors
4.4. Genosensors and diagnosis of diseases
5. Immunoassays and immunosensors for clinical analysis
5.1. General Aspects
5.2. Potentiometric immunosensors applied for diagnosis of diseases
5.3. Amperometric immunosensors applied for diagnosis of diseases
5.4. Impedimetric immunosensor applied for diagnosis of diseases
6. Enzyme-based nanostructured biosensors
7. Novel models for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases: from nanostructured biosensors to body fluids measurements
8. Summary and perspective
9. Acknowledgements
10. References


Based on biological molecules combined with nanostructured components, the news generations of electrochemical biosensors can employ different transducers (potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric) converting the chemical information into a measurable amperometric signal. Following this contemporary theme, our main focus in this review is to discuss different methodologies for application in biosensing, whose signal transduction is based on electrochemical principles. We apply a discussion on recent trends involving different nanostructured materials, but without daring to contemplate all nanomaterials incessantly cited in literature, which leads us to believe that this moment is an unprecedented revolution in the preparation of electrochemical biodevices. Besides, some structures of bio-nano interface and different electrochemical biosensors involved in diagnosis systems are also discussed. We outline in several parts of the report how nanoscience technologies are emerging in diagnostic medicine, as well as convergence of electrochemistry and bio-nanoscience. Our hopes for this review are that it can help different categories of researchers to understand the broad application area of electrochemistry and bioelectrochemistry, in order to detecting several types of diseases and biological phenomena.