[Frontiers in Bioscience E3, 1169-1181, June 1, 2011]

Principles, applications, risks and benefits of therapeutic hyperthermia

Riadh W. Y. Habash1, Daniel Krewski1, Rajeev Bansal2, Hafid T. Alhafid3

1McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Connecticut, USA, 3College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Al Ghurair University, Dubai, UAE


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Biological basis for hyperthermia
3.1. Heat only
3.2. Heat and radiation
3.3. Heat and chemotherapeutic drugs
4. Types of clinical hyperthermia
4.1. Local hyperthermia
4.2. Regional hyperthermia
4.3. Whole-body hyperthermia
5. Hyperthermia systems
5.1. capacitive- inductive-coupling systems
5.2. EM radiation devices
5.3. Interstitial and intracavitary devices
5.4. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia
6. Hyperthermia with other modalities
6.1. Hyperthermia and radiation
6.2. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy
6.3. Hyperthermia and radiochemotherapy
6.4. Hyperthermia and gene therapy
7. Hyperthermia treatment planning
8. Benefits, risks, and obstacles
8.1. Summary of benefits
8.2. Summary of risks
8.3. Obstacles
9. Perspective
10. References


Hyperthermia as a heat therapy is the procedure of raising the temperature of a part of or the whole body above normal for a certain period of time. Based largely on delivery methods, therapeutic hyperthermia falls under three major categories: local, regional, and whole-body. It may be applied alone or jointly with other modalities such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, radiochemotherapy, and gene therapy. Because of the individual characteristics of each type of treatment, different types of heating systems have evolved. This paper provides an overview of possible mechanisms of heat-induced cell death and the way heating exerts its beneficial effect. It also discusses various heating devices as well as other modalities used with hyperthermia. The paper concludes with a summary of benefits and risks, obstacles encountered in the treatment process, and future research directions.