[Frontiers in Bioscience E3, 1385-1400, June 1, 2011]
Charting the peptide crossreactome between HIV-1 and the human proteome
Guglielmo Lucchese1, Angela Stufano1, Michele Calabro1, Darja Kanduc1
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Ernesto Quagliariello, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This paper defines potential peptide cross-reactivity between HIV-1 and the human host. Specifically, the amino acid primary sequence of HIV-1, isolate CDC-451, was analyzed for potential immunopathological relationships with the human proteome. The results revealed that: 1) HIV-1 shares 50 heptapeptides and three octapeptides with the human proteome; 2) 34 of the 50 shared heptapeptides are experimentally validated epitopes targeted by immune responses following HIV-1 infection; 3) the viral heptapeptide epitopes are present in human proteins that, when altered, are associated with disease characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) such as CD4+ cell loss, encephalopathy, schizophrenia, myopathy, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, corneal diseases, diarrhea, lymphoma, and bladder cancer; 4) at the pentapeptide level, the viral-versus-human overlap is extensive (14,227 matches), with the viral pentapeptides disseminated throughout 10,312 human proteins. The findings are discussed in relationship to HIV-1 escape from immune surveillance, adjuvant-induced HIV-1 immunogenicity, autoimmune cross-reactions following human hyperimmune responses against HIV-1, and AIDS.