[Frontiers in Bioscience S3, 156-167, January 1, 2011]

Diagnosis and monitoring of chronic viral hepatitis: serologic and molecular markers

Runu Chakravarty

ICMR Virus Unit, Kolkata, GB 4, 1st Floor ID and BG Hospital Campus, 57, Dr. Suresh Chandra Banerjee Road, Kolkata 700010, India


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Hepatitis B virus
3.1. Natural history of HBV infection
4. Virological tools for monitoring chronic HBV infection
4.1. HBV serological markers
4.2. HBV DNA detection and quantification
4.3. HBV genotypes
4.4. HBV mutants
4.5. HBV cccDNA
4.6. Management of chronic HBV
4.6.1. Using Virological tools in Management of chronic HBV
4.6.2. Drug resistance in HBV
5. Hepatitis C virus
5.1. Natural history of HCV infection.
6. Virological tools for monitoring chronic HCV infection
6.1. HCV serological markers
6.2. HCV RNA detection and quantification
6.3. HCV genotypes
6.4. Management of chronic HCV
6.4.1. Using Virological Tools in Management of Chronic HCV
6.4.2. HCV resistance
7. Hepatitis D Virus
7.1. Overview of Hepatitis D Virus
7.2. Management of hepatitis D
7.2.1. Virological tools for monitoring chronic HDV infection
10. References


Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) virus infections are global health problems which may cause cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) though a satellite virus of HBV, can also cause chronic infection. Serologic and molecular tools are needed for the diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic management of chronic viral hepatitis associated with HBV, HDV and HCV. In HBV infection several serological markers are available for diagnosis and staging; while molecular assays are important for pretreatment evaluation, assessing drug response and identification of mutants. The endpoint of chronic HCV and HDV treatment is the sustained virological response, defined by an undetectable HCV/HDV RNA in serum with a sensitive assay 6 months after completion of treatment. HCV genotype and quantitative HCV RNA testing plays an important role in determining treatment duration, doses and also assess the likelihood of treatment response. Thus, virological assays are important in the diagnosis and management of individuals infected with chronic viral hepatitis.