[Frontiers in Bioscience S3, 901-918, June 1, 2011]

Stem cells cardiac differentiation in 3D systems

Cristiano Spadaccio1, Alberto Rainer2, Juan C. Chachques3, Elvio Covino1, Jesus Herreros4, Jorge A. Genovese1

1University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Cardiovascular Science, Unit of Cardiovascular Surgery, Via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome, Italy, 2University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome, Italy, 3Georges Pompidou European Hospital, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France 4University Hospital Valdecilla, Unit of Cardiovascular Surgery, Avenida Valdecilla s/n, 39008 Santander, Spain


1. Abstract
2. Introduction.
3. Stem cells therapy: a stand point
4. The tissue engineering stand point
4.1. Tailoring scaffold structure
4.2. The dynamic conditioning approach
4.3. The biofunctionalization approach
5. Conclusions
6. References


Cardiac regeneration requires a complex cascade of events. Stem cell therapy and tissue engineering are newly emerging tools with promising potential for recover or replace of damaged cardiac tissue. There are many factors, most of them still no clarified, that limit the effectiveness of these treatments and their translation to the clinic. Cells should graft, survive and functionally integrate to the target organ in order to have a chance to restore its function. As in original tissues, a complex and well defined set of signals, many of them coming from the extracellular matrix, is required for normal cell physiology. Biomaterials science gives us important tools to build this extracellular matrix. Functionalized 3D systems can provide the correct environment and act as a delivery system for genes or gene products, guiding the therapeutic cells to the functional phenotype.