[Frontiers in Bioscience S3, 1021-1031, June 1, 2011]

Neural regulation of bone, marrow, and the microenvironment

Jonathan Canaani1,2, Orit Kollet1, Tsvee Lapidot1

1Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel, 2Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizmann Street, Tel Aviv 64239


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Interactions between HSPC and the nervous system during embryonic development
4. Regulation of the adult bone, bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells by the nervous system
5. Circadian rhythms of bone turnover, bone marrow and stem cell recruitment to the circulation
6. Perspectives
7. References


Bone marrow niches are specialized microenvironments comprising a heterogeneous population of cells that support and regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Considerable advances made in the field of hematopoiesis reveal a cross talk between cells, cytokines and neurotransmitters of the hematopoietic, immune and skeletal systems. Dynamic modulation and regulation of stem cells and their niches in response to internal and external stimuli are essential for homeostasis, host defense and repair. This review presents evidence to substantiate stem cell regulation via the "brain-bone-blood triad" beginning at the embryonic stage and continuing to adulthood.