[Frontiers in Bioscience S3, 1390-1406, June 1, 2011]

Origin, maturation and recruitment of mast cell precursors

Maria Celia Jamur1, Constance Oliver1

1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto,Univerity of Sao Paulo,14049-900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Origin of mast cell committed precursors 3.1. Mouse bone marrow derived mast cell committed precursor
3.2. Human bone marrow derived mast cell committed precursor
4. Mast cell maturation 4.1. Maturation of bone marrow derived mast cells
4.2. Maturation of mast cells at peripheral sites 4.3. Major factors affecting mast cell proliferation and maturation
5. Mast cell recruitment
6. Conclusions
7. References

1. ABSTRACT

Mast cells have gained increased recognition as immunomodulators playing a role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. They were first described in 1879, but their origin remained controversial for almost a century. Today, it is known that mast cells are present in the bone marrow as committed mast cell precursors. They leave the bone marrow as progenitors and complete their maturation at peripheral sites. Investigations on the maturation of bone marrow derived mast cells focused on bone marrow cultured in the presence of interleukin-3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor (SCF). SCF is essential for mast cell survival and mice that lack either SCF or the receptor for SCF are mast cell deficient. It is the microenvironment surrounding the mast cell that determines its mature phenotype. SCF, IL-3 and IL-9 have been identified among the most important cytokines for regulation of mast cell growth and differentiation. Several factors have been identified as chemoattractants for mast cells, but their exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Mast cell recruitment is most likely a combination of the direct effect of mast cell mediators on the mast cell progenitor as well as the indirect effect of these mediators on other cell types.