[Frontiers in Bioscience 17, 2396-2418, June 1, 2012]

The effects of dietary flavonoids on the regulation of redox inflammatory networks

Valerio Izzi1, Laura Masuelli2, Ilaria Tresoldi3, Pamela Sacchetti2, Andrea Modesti1, Fabio Galvano4, Roberto Bei1

1Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, 2Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy, 3Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, 4Department of Drug Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

FIGURES

Figure 1. Biosynthesis and reactivity of ROS and RNS. The different radical products of oxygen and nitrogen are depicted according to their reactivity. e-: electron; MPO: myeloperoxydase; SOD: superoxide dismutase; Abs: antibodies; NOS: nitric oxide synthase; O2.-: superoxide; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; OH.: hydroxyl radical; D 1O2: singlet oxygen; HOCl: hypochlorous acid; O3 ozone; NO.: nitric oxide; ONOO- : peroxynitrite; NO2: nitrite; NO3: nitrate.

Figure 2. Production of ROS and RNS in phagocytes. ROS and RNS are differentially produced into phagocyte to clear the host off invading pathogenes. MPO: myeloperoxydase; NOS: nitric oxide synthase; NOX: NADPH oxidase; LPO: lactoperoxidase; O2.-: superoxide; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; OH.: hydroxyl radical, D 1O2: singlet oxygen; HOCl: hypochlorous acid; O3 ozone; NO.: nitric oxide; ONOO-: peroxynitrite; NO2.: nitrogen dioxide; NO2: nitrite; NO3: nitrate; SCN-: thiocyanate anions; HOSCN: hypothiocyanite.

Figure 3. ROS-activated signaling pathways in inflammation. Downstream of ROS production, several signaling pathways are activated to regulate the inflammatory process. PTKs: non-receptor protein kinases; PTPs: protein phosphatases; PKB: protein kinase B; PKC: protein kinase C; MAPKS: mitogen-activated protein kinases; NF-kB: nuclear factor kB; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKC: protein kinase C; MKK; MAP kinase kinase; ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinases; TCR: T-cell receptor; BCR: B-cell receptor; IL-17: interleukin-17.