[Frontiers in Bioscience E4, 794-808, January 1, 2012]

Natural antioxidants in prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease

Yan Zhao1, Baolu Zhao2

1Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 264209, P.R.China,2State Key laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R. China

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of AD
3.1. Oxidative stress in AD
3.2. Abeta toxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction are interlinked
3.3. Oxidative stress enhances Abeta production
4. Therapeutic potential of nature antioxidants for AD
4.1. Ginkgo biloba flavonoids
4.2. Soybean isoflavones
4.3. Nicotine
4.4 .Theanine
4.5 .Other natural antioxidants
5. Conclusions and Perspectives
6. Acknowledgements
7. References

1. ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease that causes dementia in the elderly. As the aging population increases, the prevalence of AD has increased remarkably worldwide and AD has become one of the leading causes of disability and death among the elderly. A number of drugs have been approved for the treatment of AD; however, they produce only modest benefits and have a wide range of side effects. Therefore, extensive studies are underway to identify effective drugs that are free of undesirable side effects. As accumulating evidences have implicated oxidative stress in the initiation and progression of AD, the potential of using nature antioxidants for prevention and treatment of AD has attracted considerable attention. The present review discusses the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD and the neuroprotective effects of natural antioxidants, such as Ginkgo biloba flavonoids, soybean isoflavones, theanine and nicotine in cell culture and AD transgenic animal models, specifically, their inhibition on Abeta-induced neurotoxicity and the underlined molecular mechanisms.