[Frontiers in Bioscience E4, 1385-1390, January 1, 2012]

Alternative hypothesis for the origin of osteoporosis: The role of Mn

Tomas Landete-Castillejos1,2,3, Inmaculada Molina-Quilez4, Jose Antonio Estevez2,3, Francisco Ceacero2,3, Andres Jose Garcia1,2,3, Laureano Gallego3

1 IREC Sec Albacete, IDR, UCLM, Albacete, Spain, 2 Instituto de Desarrollo Regional (IDR), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Albacete, Spain, 3 ETSIA, UCLM, 02071 Albacete, Spain, 4 Hospital de Hellin, Hellin, Albacete, Spain


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. An alternative hypothesis for the origin of osteoporosis: The essential mineral for Ca fixation hypothesis (EMCaF)
4. Assessing clinical evidence supporting EMCaF prediction 3
4.1. Statistical analyses
5. Osteoporotics but not osteoarthritics may show brain malfunction
6. Evidence regarding the role of Mn in bone accretion in osteoporotic bones
7. Supporting evidence on the role of Mn in brain degenerative diseases and epilepsy
7.1. Depletion of bone Mn with increasing severity of Alzheimer's disease
7.2. Role of Mn in Parkinson's disease
8. Perspectives
9. Acknowledgements
10. References


Antlers represent an ideal experimental model for bone biology studies, because of their easy accessibility, and their rapid growth. Findings from our previous studies revealed that Mn plays an essential role in incorporating the circulating bone Ca to the growing antlers. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that Mn, an essential mineral for Ca fixation (or incorporation) into bones, might be released from bone, during its remodeling, to be available for prioritized function, most likely, brain function; Consequently, Ca incorporation will be dramatically affected, leading to osteoporosis, particularly in elderly people. Therefore, osteoporosis would precede brain malfunctioning diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, and clinical data are available to support some of the predictions derived from this hypothesis.