[Frontiers in Bioscience 18, 120-132, January 1, 2013]

Nutrition in oncologic patients during antiblastic treatment

Massimiliano Berretta1, Mariagrazia Michieli1, Raffaele Di Francia2, Alessandro Cappellani3, Maurizio Rupolo1, Fabio Galvano4, Rossella Fisichella3, Salvatore Berretta3, Umberto Tirelli1

1Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute Aviano (Pn) Italy, 2Laboratory of Molecular Hematology, National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale, Naples Italy, 3Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania Italy, 4Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology, University of Catania, Catania Italy

TABLES

Table 1. Recommended dietary supplements during chemotherapy and their predominant action

Dietary supplement

Field of action

Alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, vitamin C, niacin, selenium, coenzyme Q, zinc

Antioxidants

Medical mushrooms and mushrooms-derived polysaccharide preparations (i.e. PSK, Agaricus Blazei, Avemar)

Immune Modulation

Glutamine

Mucositis, intestinal toxicity, neuropathy

Vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol)

Mucositis, neuropathy

Zinc supplementation

Mucositis

Probiotics (i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus)

Intestinal toxicity

Ginger

Nausea

Table 2. Nutritional requirements in HSCT. Modified from (99)

Nutrients

Severe malnutrition: severe complications

No severe malnutrition: mild complications

Proteins (g x kg-1 x d-1)

1.8-2.5

1.5-1.8

Carbohydrates (g x kg-1 x d-1)

3-4

3-5

Lipids (g x kg-1 x d-1)

1.8-2

1.5-2

Glutamine (g x kg-1 x d-1)

0.35-0.55

0.35-0.55

w-3 Fatty acids

20% of total lipids

20% of total lipids

Vitamins E and C

Yes

Yes

Selenium

Yes

Yes