[Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 20, 37-77, January 1, 2015]

The role of microRNAs in skeletal muscle health and disease

Tyler J. Kirby 1, 2 , Thomas Chaillou 1, 2 , John J. McCarthy 1, 2

1Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
    2.1. History
    2.2. Biogenesis
    2.3. Tissue-specific expression
    2.4. MyomiRs
3. MicroRNA regulation of myogenesis
    3.1. Proliferation
    3.2. Differentiation
    3.3. Quiescence
4. Manipulation of microRNA expression on de novo skeletal muscle formation
    4.1. Development
    4.2. Regeneration
    4.3. Innervation
5. MicroRNAs in response to muscular activity
    5.1. MiRNAs in response to increased mechanical demand
    5.2. MiRNAs in response to increased metabolic demand
    5.3. Physical activity and circulating microRNA
6. MicroRNA in skeletal muscle disorder and atrophy
    6.1. Primary muscular disorder
      6.1.1. Duchenne muscle dystrophy
      6.1.2. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 2
      6.1.3. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy
      6.1.4. Inflammatory myopathies
    6.2. Secondary muscular disorder
      6.2.1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
      6.2.2. Disease-realted muscular disorder
        6.2.2.1. Diabetes mellitus
        6.2.2.2. Chronic kidney disease
        6.2.2.3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
        6.2.2.4. Glucocorticoid induced-atrophy
      6.2.3. Disuse-related muscular disorder
    6.3. Aging
    6.4. Rhabdomyosarcoma
7. Conclusions
8. Acknowledgements
9. References

1. ABSTRACT

Over the last decade non-coding RNAs have emerged as importance regulators of gene expression. In particular, microRNAs are a class of small RNAs of ~ 22 nucleotides that repress gene expression through a post-transcriptional mechanism. MicroRNAs have been shown to be involved in a broader range of biological processes, both physiological and pathological, including myogenesis, adaptation to exercise and various myopathies. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of what is currently known about the role of microRNAs in skeletal muscle health and disease.

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Abbreviations: miRNA: microRNA; TGF-β: Transforming growth factor- beta; PAX3: paired-box 3; PAX7: Paired-box 7; MYOD: myogenic differentiation; MYF5: Myogenic factor 5; MRF4: Myogenic regulatory factor 4; Mef2: Myocyte enhancing factor; SRF: serum response factor; HDAC4: Histone deacetylase 4; EZH2: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2; YY1: Ying yang 1; mTOR: mechanical target of rapamycin; IGF: Insulin-like growth factor; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; CKD: chronic kidney disease; RMS: rhabdomyosarcoma; DMD: Duchenne muscular dystrophy; FSHD: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy; ALS: Amyotrphic lateral sclerosis; Dex: Dexamethasone, NMJ: neuromuscular junction

Key Words: MyomiR, Exercise, Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Muscular dystrophy, Review

Send correspondence to: John J. McCarthy, University of Kentucky, Department of Physiology, 800 Rose Street, MS508, Lexington, KY 40536-0298, Tel: 859-323-4730, Fax: 859-323-1070, E-mail: jjmcca2@email.uky.edu