1Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA, 2Division of Neuroscience based-Therapy, Summit Estate Recovery Center, Los Gatos, CA, USA, 3Dominion Diagnostics, LLC, North Kingstown, RI, USA, 4Division of Neuroscience Research and Addiction Therapy, Shores Treatment and Recovery Center, Port Saint Lucie, FL, USA, 5Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 6Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 7Research Institute of Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA, 8Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University Budapest, Hungary, 9Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine. St. Louis, Mo., USA
Figure 1. Administration of a complex (KB220Z) increases connectivity with the NAc and PFC. This effect would presumably benefit cocaine-addicted individuals showing reduced functional connectivity in mesocorticolimbic circuitry. Reproduced with permission from (79).
Figure 2. A double-blind cross-over study in abstinent heroin-dependent participants of KB220Z, a DA precursor complex one hour following delivery of neurotransmitter precursors, functional connectivity between regions of the accumbens and the medial orbital cortex is enhanced. Arrow and blue circle are shown to emphasize increases in functional connectivity in NAc with oral KB220Z. Reproduced with permission from (6).