[Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 22, 669-691, January 1, 2017]

Dopamine homeostasis: brain functional connectivity in reward deficiency syndrome

Marcelo Febo 1 , Kenneth Blum 1, 4, 8 , Rajendra D. Badgaiyan 5 , David Baron 6 , Panayotis K. Thanos 7 , Luis M. Colon-Perez 1 , Zsolt Demotrovics 8 , Mark S. Gold 1, 6, 9

1Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA, 2Division of Neuroscience based-Therapy, Summit Estate Recovery Center, Los Gatos, CA, USA, 3Dominion Diagnostics, LLC, North Kingstown, RI, USA, 4Division of Neuroscience Research and Addiction Therapy, Shores Treatment and Recovery Center, Port Saint Lucie, FL, USA, 5Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 6Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 7Research Institute of Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA, 8Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University Budapest, Hungary, 9Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine. St. Louis, Mo., USA


Table 1. Reward Deficiency Behaviors a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors (3)

Addictive Behaviors Impulsive behaviors Obsessive compulsive behaviors Personality disorders
Substance Related Non substance related Spectrum disorders Disruptive impulsive
Alcohol Thrill seeking(novelty) Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Anti-social Body Dysmorphic Paranoid
Cannabis Sexual Sadism Tourettes and Tic Syndrome Conduct Hoarding Schizoid
Opioids Sexual Masochism Autism Intermittent Explosive Trichotillomania (hair pulling) Borderline
Sedatives and Hypnotics Hypersexual Oppositional Defiant Excoriation (skin picking) Schizotypal
Stimulants Gambling Exhibitionistic Non-suicidal Self-Injury Histrionic
Tobacco Internet Gaming Narcissistic
Glucose Avoidant
Food Dependant
Modified according to DSM-5. Reproduced with permission from(2).