Authors

Manuscript Content

The research articles, and technical notes contain a title, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, result, discussion, acknowledgment, references, legends to figures, tables and figures. If necessary, the result and discussion sections may be combined. The reviews contain a title, abstract, introduction, body of text, acknowledgment, references, legends to figures, tables and figures.

Reproducibility of Results and Statistical Analysis

Submission of data for publication is an indication that the authors are confident that the data are reproducible. Appropriate statistical analysis should be used to determine that the findings are significant. The term "significant" should be used only if such determination has been made. The probability of the significance should be stated. When reporting a new assay, the following data should be listed:

  • Within-assay variability
  • Between-assay variability
  • Slope of the dose-response curve
  • Mid-range of assay
  • Sensitivity. Least detectable concentration
  • Specificity
  • Parallelism of the standard and the unknown on recovery
  • Comparison with another method for the detection of the compound

Ethical Standards

Publication of a scientific article represents the means through which the contribution of the scientists is recognized. Along with this recognition, the authors of a scientific article bear the responsibility to make certain that their contribution is original, reproducible, and clearly and honestly represented. It is not always possible to detect erroneous nature of a set of data by the peer review process. Therefore, it is vital that all authors carefully review the accuracy of the data that they present.

The authors of the manuscript are obligated to:

  • Refrain from plagiarism (total or partial submission of the work of others)
  • Refrain from fabricating (falsifying) data
  • Refrain from dishonesty (altering or suppressing information)
  • Refrain from submitting information previously published or under consideration for publication in another journal
  • Describe the work accurately
  • Provide the details necessary for the duplication of the data by other investigators
  • Include all the data even if they do not support a given hypothesis
  • Cite all the relevant contribution of other investigators and references that allow interpretation of the results
  • Include the source of all the materials that are used
  • Make available all products that they generate such as protein, DNA, clone, cell or other types of material that they describe to other investigators. This should be done with the spirit that the data that are published can be duplicated and that other ideas can be tested
  • Abide by the rules set in the Declaration of Helsinki and Recommendation for Conduct Of Clinical Research
  • Use laboratory animals for the research according to the rules and regulations of NIH and their institution
  • Use recombinant DNA for the research according to the rules and regulations of NIH and the institution

Manuscript Submission

  • Manuscripts that are ready for submission should be scientifically sound and without errors in English (including spelling, grammar, proper sentence flow, etc.). They also should follow the FBS style of formatting described in previous sections of this page.
  • Properly-formatted manuscripts should be submitted using the online submission page. Figures should be named according to the following format: fig1.jpg, fig2.jpg, etc. Tables should be inserted at the end of the manuscript and not sent as separate files. As noted earlier, do not submit supplementary material.
  • All invited articles should be sent for the peer review process to the managing editor and not to the editorial office of the Frontiers in Bioscience. Managing editors will submit the accepted manuscript to the editorial office. Authors of non-invited articles should submit their manuscripts using the online submission page.
  • When a manuscript is submitted, the corresponding author will get a response within a few days regarding the suitability of the manuscript for publication in the Frontiers in Bioscience journal. Once the manuscript has been received, it will be designated a "temporary manuscript number." Please refer to the temporary manuscript number in all correspondence to the editorial office.
  • All manuscripts will be peer reviewed by experts. A manuscript will be published if the manuscript gets a high impact score. Every attempt will be made to keep the duration of the review to a minimum.

Read submission guidelines, view a properly formatted sample document ready for submission and submit a manuscript for peer review:

General Formatting Guidelines

  • Format, revise and correct the manuscript and save it as a Word document and not as a text or any other type of file. It is important that the manuscript be submitted free of grammar, spelling or scientific errors. Subsequent to submission of the manuscript, please do not send any other revised form of the same document. Such documents will not be used.
  • If you are including text, tables or figures that were previously published, please obtain the permission of the publisher. By simply calling or writing to the publisher, you can easily obtain such permissions.
  • If you are referring to previously published text, figure or table, please add the following comment to text, the figure or table legend "Reproduced with permission from, (ref #)."
  • All terms such as et al, in situ, in vitro, in vivo, etc. should be italicized.
  • Please refrain from the use of Greek characters or special lettering such as &, $, ó, ñ, á, a.”, ß, d, g %, >, <, ±, etc. in the names of authors, their affiliations, the title, the abstract and preferably not in the body of the text. Instead, use English correlates of such characters; for example, substitute “alpha, percent, greater than” for “a, %, >.” Greek or other special characters might appear as blank letters. In addition, such characters may not display properly in old browsers when the document is placed online. Please review the manuscript carefully and change Greek or any special characters to their English correlates. To see such characters and their English correlates, please click here.
  • Please do not use automatic numbering in table of contents, titles, subtitles or references. The numbering used by Word is proprietary and does not allow conversion to HTML documents. Please remove automatic numbering and manually number numbered items in text.
  • Do not include supplements. All supplementary materials must be included in text. All supplementary figures and tables must be referred to by sequential numbers in text and listed at the end of the document.
  • Do not include footnotes throughout the text. All footnotes must be included at the end of the references and referred to sequentially by superscripted numbers both in text and in footnotes.
  • Do not submit zipped or rar files. All documents must be in doc or docx format.
  • All files must be scanned for viruses prior to submission.

Page Layout: General

  • Page: 8x10 inch
  • Margins: 1 inch
  • Header and footer: 0.5 inch
  • Mode: portrait
  • Single column
  • Font: "Times New Roman"
  • Font size: "9"
  • Font color: "black"
  • Text: single-spaced
  • Each paragraph indented 0.5 inches
  • Two hard returns should be placed after each paragraph
  • Two hard returns after each title
  • One hard return after each subtitle
  • Use continuous text
Page arrangement: Reviews

  • Title of the manuscript
  • Names of authors
  • Affiliations of authors
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Body
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Key Words
  • Send correspondence to: (only one corresponding author can be included. List the name of the author, address, Tel: , Fax: , and E-mail:
  • Figure legends (do not place the reference to figure legends in table of contents)
  • Tables (do not place the references to tables in table of contents)
  • Running title (do not place the reference to the running title in table of contents)
  • DOI linked references (to be submitted in a separate file as doi.doc or doi.docx)
Page arrangement: Primary Research Articles

  • Tile of the manuscript
  • Names of authors
  • Affiliations of authors
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Key Words
  • Send correspondence to: (only one corresponding author can be included. List the name of the author, followed by address, Tel: , Fax:, and E-mail:
  • Figure legends (do not place the reference to figure legends in table of contents)
  • Tables (do not place the references to tables in table of contents)
  • Running title (do not place the reference to the running title in table of contents)
  • DOI linked references (to be submitted in a separate file as doi.doc or doi.doc)

Format of Manuscript: Components

(first page)

Title
Provide a title, less than 75 characters. Title should be bold and only the first letter and abbreviations are capped.

Author names
Provide full names - first, middle name initial and last names. Use the following format: First author (First name, Middle name initial, Last name)Affiliation number followed by second author, etc.

Author affiliations
Provide full addresses of authors - do not use only department as address. Use the following format: Affiliation numberFull address, city, state.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Section 3.
3.1. Section 3.1.
3.1.1. Section 3.1.1.
4. Section 4.
4.1. Section 4.1.

5. Acknowledgement
6. References

Please note that a period is required after each number. Only the first letter or abbreviations are capitalized.

1. ABSTRACT

Text
Indent abstract 0.5 inch. Abstract should be 175 words or less.

2. INTRODUCTION

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2
Indent each paragraph 0.5 inch. Insert hard return after each paragraph.

(second and subsequent pages)

Text body (reviews), Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion (Primary research articles)

SECTION 3.
Section title bold and capped.

Section 3.1.
Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2

Section 3.1.1.
Paragraph 1
Subsection title bold and not capped. No hard return.

SECTION 4.

Text
Text indented 0.5 inch.

Section 4.1. Section title bold and not capped.
Text
Indented half inch. No hard return for subsections.
Do not italicize, underline, or use all-capped letters in subsection titles.
Only first letter or abbreviations are capped.


Notes:

Place a hard return after each paragraph.
Indent each paragraph 0.5 inch.
Number section and subsection throughout the text according to the numbers in the table of contents.
Place two returns after section titles and one return after subsection titles.
If you are using arrows in text or figure legends, please copy and use only the following list of arrows: ??????
Please cite references throughout the text in sequential numbers and place references inside parenthesis at the end of sentences throughout the text.
5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 6. REFERENCES

Journal articles
  • Number references in sequence of their citation in the text.
  • After the number place a period.
  • Cite all authors.
  • Do not use et al.
  • For authors, cite the first name or initial followed by last name.
  • Place a comma after the name of the authors.
  • Type the title of the manuscript.
  • Place a period after the title.
  • Cite and italicize the abbreviated name of the journal.
  • Do not place a period after the abbreviated journal name. If you do not know the abbreviated name of a given journal, find the abbreviation at: https://www.bioscience.org/atlases/jourabbr/list.htm
    Abbreviate journal names in accord with the NCBI journal ref list http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals. To see the list of journal abbreviations click here.
  • Type the volume of the journal followed by a comma, inclusive paging as shown above and the year placed in parenthesis.
  • Do not use "pp" for referring to the page numbers.

  • Sample reference citation
    1. Bart Karl, Peter Thomas: Molecular and cellular adaptation of muscle in response to exercise. Physiol Rev 23, 520-535 (1995)
    or
    1. B. Karl, P. Thomas: Molecular and cellular adaptation of muscle in response to exercise. Physiol Rev 23, 520-535 (1995)
Books
  • Number references in sequence of their citation in the text.
  • After the number place a period.
  • Cite all authors.
  • Do not use et al.
  • For authors, cite the first name or initial followed by last name.
  • Place a comma after the name of the authors.
  • Type the title of the chapter.
  • Place a period after the title. Type: "In:" type the title of the book.
  • Type "Eds:" then type the editors.
  • Type the name of publisher followed by city, state, country (if not in US).
  • Type the volume followed by comma, inclusive page numbers and then year in parenthesis.
  • Do not use "pp" for referring to the page numbers.

  • Sample book reference citation
    1. Bart Marks, Peter Goll. Skeletal muscle adaptability: significance for metabolism and performance. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect 10 Skeletal muscle. Eds: LD Peachey, RH Norbert, SR Finn Bethesda, Maryland (1981)
    or
    1. B. Marks, P. Goll. Skeletal muscle adaptability: significance for metabolism and performance. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect 10 Skeletal muscle. Eds: LD Peachey, RH Norbert, SR Finn Bethesda, Maryland (1981)

EndNote Support

EndNote now supports FBS' style of references. In order to update your program, please refer to the instructions that follow:

Instructions

To include the FBS style of references into the EndNote program, please do the following:
1. Go to http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp. Enter "Frontiers in Bioscience" into the search query and download the styles. Unpack the zipped file.
2. Open the Endnote program.
3. Click the Style Folder within Endnote.
4. Copy or drag the template style file (fbs.ens) into the Style Folder.
With this done, the format of Frontiers of Bioscience will become a part of the style format selection choices in the EndNote Program. If there are errors in numbering follow the steps below:
1. In the Endnote library, make sure that the FBS style is active in the upper right corner of the library window.
2. Click the "Edit" menu tab, scroll down to "Output Styles," and select Edit "FBS."
3. In the resulting edit window, click the "bibliography" triangle on the right side column.
4. There are two panes in the resulting window, the top pane being "start each reference with:" (the pane may be initially blank).
5. In the drop down menu associated with the pane, choose "bibliography number," which now shows up in the pane
6. In the same drop down menu, choose "tab," which also shows up in the pane
7. Close the window and save the changes.
For further or technical support, please visit EndNote Support (http://www.endnote.com/support).
Key Words: Key word1, Key word2, etc.
Include at least five key words. Include the word "Review" for reviews. The first letter and abbreviations must be capped.

Send correspondence to: First name, middle name initial, Last name of the corresponding author, Full address, Tel: xxx-xxx-xxxx, Fax: xxx-xxx-xxxx, E-mail: address
Include only one corresponding author.

Tables

  • Include tables at the end of the document.
  • Do not submit tables in any other format such as an image, Excel file, PDF file, etc.
  • Each table must be a real table with columns, rows and cells.
  • Do not use tab to create tables.
  • Each piece of information should reside in its own cell.
  • Tables must be numbered sequentially in the text and in the table title.
  • Do not place any period after the table title.
  • Do not use any numbering style other than 1, 2 etc.
  • Each table should have a short title. Any other text should be included at the bottom of the table and not in the table title.
  • Please refer to any notation within the table with sequential superscripted numbers and not by any other attribute such as a, #, * etc.
  • Please cite references in the right column by numbers referenced in the reference section. Do not use the name of author followed by et al.
  • If possible, please do not use abbreviations in tables.
  • If abbreviations are used, please list them below the table such as IFN: interferon.
Incorrect tables

Heading 1 Heading 2 References
A $ B 1, 34
C D 1, 98
P2 receptor expression by osteoblasts,$:xxxx

Table 1. P2 receptor expression by osteoblasts
Heading 1
A
C
Heading 2
B
D
References
1, 34
1, 98

Heading 1 Heading 2 References
A B 1, 34
C D 1, 98
P2 receptor expression by osteoblasts

Correct table

Table 1. P2 receptor expression by osteoblasts
Heading 1 Heading 2 References
A1 B 2 1, 34
C D 1, 98
1: xxxx, 2: xxxx

Figures
  • If a figure has been previously published, please obtain permission from publisher and then add the comment "Reproduced with permission from, (reference number)." to the legend.
  • Figures should be submitted as high resolution files (at least 300 dpi). Any previously published figure that is scanned, is low quality or has blurred image or text should be re-created and submitted as a high quality-high resolution file. Figures that do not have sufficient resolution, or clarity cannot be used for publication.
  • Figures with a dark or black background do not display or print well. Submit figures with a bright or white background.
  • For bar graphs use white, black and shades of gray. Do not use any other style such as hashed bar graphs, etc.
  • For bar graphs, provide X and Y axis legend.
  • If available provide figures in color.
  • Avoid using various types of fonts, or sizes in any figure. Use the same type of font. Use “Arial font size 10” in all figures. If multiple fonts are required, they all should be clearly visible when reduced to the journal page size.
  • Multi-part figures should be submitted as one figure with one figure placed on the top of the other.
  • Do not leave any white space around or between different parts of the figure. Place all figures with the least amount of white space between them.
  • Do not place figure legend, a title, figure number, or author’s name within any figure. Titles can be added to the figure legend if required. Legends must be included at the end of the document as a text.
  • Do not box any bar graph or figure.
  • In multi-part figures, place labels such as "A", "B" etc. in the left lower corner of each figure. If there are more than two parts to the figure put them in two column format with part A above B and C to the right of A and on the top of D
  • Please cite references within the figure legends by their numbers.
  • Save and submit figures as jpg files.
  • Please number figures as follows fig1.jpg, fig2.jpg. Please do not use any other naming style. Please do not make the filenames in upper case.
  • Do not include the “jpg” extension within the figure filename.
  • Do not submit figures in any other file format such as PDF, PowerPoint, Word, TIF, GIF, etc.
Figure samples





Supplementary materials
  • Place all supplementary material within the body of the text; as the Frontiers in Bioscience does not impose a page limitation on its accepted manuscripts, we ask that you simply include all material deemed as "supplementary" within the body of the manuscript. Thus, refrain from adding a separate section entitled "Supplementary materials."
  • All supplementary text, materials and methods, figures and tables must be included in the body of the manuscript and numbered sequentially along with any other figure and table.

Example of a Properly-Formatted Manuscript

(first page)

Exercise-induced angiogenesis

Robert Carl1, Sonia Florio2

1Full Address, 2Full Address

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Capillarization: its importance and change in response to increased muscle activity
3.1. Oxygen uptake and metabolic exchange
3.2. Changes in capillary formation in response to physical activity
4. Summary and perspective
5. Acknowledgements
6. References

1. ABSTRACT

          Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new blood vessels; it is generally a rare occurrence in the adult, although it is a common adaptive response to exercise training in skeletal muscle. Current thinking is that angiogenesis is mediated by diffusible angiogenic factors and that the angiogenic activity is regulated through the balance between stimulatory and inhibitory factors. Recent studies have shown that up-regulation of angiogenic factors occurs in response to increased muscle activity in skeletal muscle. The major putative angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), seems to increase to a greater extent and more consistently than other measured angiogenic factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). While the regulating mechanisms in this response are not clear, present data indicate reduced oxygen tension and/or related metabolic alterations in the skeletal muscle as possible stimuli. Data on other angiogenic growth factors are limited, but an increase in endothelial cell-stimulating angiogenic growth factor (ESAF) has been observed in response to increased blood flow and muscle stretching. Therefore, different exercise associated stimuli may all contribute to exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, but possibly through differing angiogenic factors and mechanisms. Understanding these processes is important for the elucidation of mechanisms mediating exercise responsiveness in skeletal muscle, but also for the potential that such understanding might bring to the treatment and prevention of human diseases such as intermittent claudication.

2. INTRODUCTION

          The adaptation of skeletal muscle to different types of exercise is well characterized. It includes increases in the number and size of mitochondria and in the activity of enzymes controlling oxidative metabolism and capillarity (1-2). In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the increases in vascularity that occur with exercise conditioning. These include angiogenic factors induced in response to increased muscle activity or endurance exercise. We also discuss how these factors are coordinated with increases in oxidative capacity, and how they might be altered in pathophysiological states.

(second and subsequent pages)

3. CAPILLARIZATION: ITS IMPORTANCE AND CHANGE IN RESPONSE TO INCREASED MUSCLE ACTIVITY

3.1. Oxygen uptake and metabolic exchange
          The weight of evidence supports the concept that the major determinant of exercise tolerance during exercise using large muscle masses is through central cardiovascular hemodynamic factors, such as cardiac output (1-2). However, the ability to realize maximum performance will also depend on efficient peripheral mechanisms for oxygen uptake and utilization for example, peripheral oxygen delivery, distribution, extraction and mitochondrial respiration. Increased peak oxygen uptake, during constant oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle, after training, and a corresponding decrease in peak oxygen uptake after immobilization, are observations that support a role for limitations in peripheral factors as determinants of skeletal muscle oxygen uptake and performance during exercise (1-2).

3.2. Changes in capillary formation in response to physical activity
          One-legged endurance training further demonstrates the limitation conferred by peripheral factors. For example, a higher peak oxygen uptake is observed with exercise with the trained leg when compared to maximal exercise with the contralateral untrained leg (1). Since one-legged exercise does not stress the capacity of central hemodynamics to perfuse the exercising leg (1,2), the increased capacity demonstrated with the trained leg is likely to be related to peripheral adaptations attributable to increases in oxygen extraction and utilization, such as increased capillarity and/or oxidative capacity.

4. SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVE

          From these studies, it is apparent that up-regulation of angiogenic factors occurs in response to increased muscle activity in skeletal muscle. The major angiogenic factor, VEGF, seems to increase to a greater extent and more consistently than other measured angiogenic factors, such as FGF-2 or TGF-beta. While the regulatory mechanisms of this response are not clear, the present data suggest that reduced oxygen tension or related metabolic alterations in the skeletal muscle are possible stimuli. Furthermore, VEGF expression and angiogenesis seem to follow a similar time course in response to increases in contractile activity and both precede the change in skeletal muscle oxidative potential in electrical stimulation models.

          Available data indicate that VEGF mRNA increases in muscle fibers with the subsequent release of VEGF protein into surrounding media. In this scenario, the skeletal muscle fiber is one source for the production of angiogenic factors, and paracrine regulation of angiogenesis is suggested as one important mechanism in skeletal muscle. Data on other angiogenic growth factors are limited, and many factors that are responsive in vitro to stimuli that occur during exercise, such as increased shear stress, have not been studied in response to muscle activation or endurance exercise. However, an increase in ESAF activity has been observed in response to different exercise-associated stimuli, such as increased blood flow and muscle stretch. Therefore, reduced oxygen tensions and/or related metabolic alterations, increases in blood flow, muscle stretching and muscle activation may all contribute to exercise-induced angiogenesis, although through different angiogenic factors and mechanisms. These differences could mediate specificity in response to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli in skeletal muscle. Understanding these processes is important for the elucidation of mechanisms mediating exercise-responsiveness in skeletal muscle, but also for the potential that such understanding might bring to the treatment and prevention of human diseases such as intermittent claudication.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

          Authors A and B contributed equally to this article. Other acknowledgments.

6. REFERENCES

1. B. Marks, P. Goll. Skeletal muscle adaptability: significance for metabolism and performance. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect 10 Skeletal muscle. Eds: LD Peachey, RH Norbert, SR Finn Bethesda, Maryland (1981)
2. B. Karl, P. Thomas: Molecular and cellular adaptation of muscle in response to exercise. Physiol Rev23, 520-535 (1995)

Abbreviations: VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; FGF: fibroblast growth factor; ESAF:endothelial cell-stimulating angiogenic growth factor; Ang: angiopoietin; TGF: transforming growth factor; PDGF: platelet derived growth factor; Ach: acetylcholine; NO: nitric oxide; NP: nitroprusside

Key Words: Angiogenesis, Angiogenic factors, Exercise, Skeletal muscle, Review

Send correspondence to: John Doe, 23 Fullerton St, NY, NY 10021, Tel: 212-555-5555, Fax: 212-655-6555, E-mail: johndoe@em.edu

Table 1. Comparison of specific features of apoptosis and necrosis
Features1 Necrosis Apoptosis
Stimuli Toxins, severe hypoxia, conditions of ATP depletion Physiologic and pathological conditions without ATP depletion
Energy requirement None ATP-dependent
Histology Cellular swelling Chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies, death of single isolated cell
1Various distinguishing features
Figure 1. Possible pathways for the regulation of apoptosis are illustrated. Pro-apoptotic signals induce mitochondrial permeability transition resulting in a release of cytochrome c (cyt c) and AIF (apoptosis inducing factor) into the cytoplasma. AIF activates caspase 3, whereas cyt C activates the oligomerization of APAF (apoptosis protease activating factor) leading to the activation of caspase 9 and 3. Activated caspase 3 cleaves the ICAD (inhibitor of CAD) and free CAD (caspase activated Dnase) cleaves DNA. Another possible route for activation of apoptosis is via death receptors like TNF-a or FAS. Once activated these receptors lead to the activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3. The activation of caspase 8 is inhibited by ARC (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain), whereas AKT (AKT-kinase) is a possible inhibitor of the caspase 9 activation. Reproduced with permission from (1).

Running title: Exercise-induced angiogenesis

Read submission guidelines and submit an accepted manuscript following peer review:

Publishing Process

Once a manuscript has been accepted, the first galley of the manuscript will be submitted electronically as an email attachment to the corresponding author. This galley is for text correction. The first galley is identified by a unique temporary file number. Do not change or rename the filename. All correspondence to this office must refer to this number. All required items/steps listed in the next section summarized below should be followed within 48 hours to avoid publication delays. All accepted and properly formatted and revised manuscripts must be submitted along with other items listed below in the online submission page. During the online submission, you will find the appropriate forms to fill out. The submission process entails the following steps
1. Submission of the data required for PubMed indexing
2. Selection and submission of copyright transfer assignment
3. Selection and submission of a publication package
4. Submission of properly formatted first galley as a Word file (temporary manuscript number.doc or docx)
5. Submission of doi.doc or doi.docx
6. Submission of figures (as fig1.jpg, fig2.jpg, etc.)
Submission of the data required for PubMed indexing:
  • Fill all fields.
  • Title must be less than 75 characters with spaces.
  • Abstract must be less than 175 characters with spaces.
  • Include full first name, middle name initial and full last name of each author and their affiliations. Please note that Frontiers in Bioscience does not take responsibility for any error in the PUBMED entries.
  • Do not use any non-English characters in the names of authors, their affiliation, and title of the manuscript or the abstract. Such characters appear as empty boxes in PubMed. Please insure that names of authors, their affiliations, title and abstract are all free of any letters other than English characters. Letters such as &, $, ó, ñ, á, a, c, d, ß, %, > or < >, <, ±, etc. in name, affiliation, title or abstract, must be converted to their English correlates. Special characters and their English correlates are listed here.
Selection and submission of copyright transfer assignment:
  • Read and select the copyright transfer assignment.
Selection and submission of a publication package:
A publication package must be selected during online submission. Once the corrected and properly formatted first galley is received from the corresponding author, it will be processed according to the instruction provided in the online order form. Basic publication costs are subsidized for invited reviews. Other publication charges are also heavily subsidized for invited reviews. Authors of primary research articles are responsible for publication charges.

If a professional package is selected before the manuscript is published, a pre-publication PDF will be sent to the corresponding author via email. The pre-publication PDF has a two column rich layout with figures and tables placed in the pages where they are cited. Corrections cannot be accepted following the generation of the professional PDF. Any correction requires reprocessing which can be requested here.
Submission of properly formatted first galley as a Word file:
  • Read, revise per FBS formatting style and submit the first galley (do not change the file name). Please make all text corrections in the first galley.
  • There are questions and instructions at the end of the manuscript. The corresponding author should respond to the questions and should revise the manuscript according to the provided instruction. Manuscript cannot be processed without such revisions.
  • Please note changes that are made to the document by vendor might appear in red font. All red fonts will be changed to black upon publication.
  • Please disregard the page numbers in the galley as the final page numbers will be assigned upon publication.
  • Do not list changes in the first galley, in an Email or a PDF submitted by E-mail.
  • Tracking of the Word can be turned on in the galley so all changes will be automatically marked in colored font or by making corrections in red font. Normally, this is not required if the changes are not extensive. No other form of changes such as strike-through, highlighting text in colored bars, etc. can be made in the galley.
  • If you wish to instruct the vendor to make the changes, please list the corrections at the end of document. In this case, vendor charges ($25/per correction) will apply.
  • Please make sure that the first name, the middle name initial and last name of each author is spelled in the first page.
  • Please do not make formatting changes such as changing the line spacing, removing or adding bold feature to titles etc., other than those which follow the FBS style. During the conversion of the manuscript, automatic numbering, some formatting (Bold, Italics, etc.) and Greek letters may be lost. Bold and italics can be used in the first galley. However, it is preferred to use non-English characters in the text, tables or figure legends. Special characters and their English correlates are listed here.
  • If you are using text, tables or figures that were previously published, please obtain the permission of the publisher. By simply calling or writing to the publisher, you can easily obtain such permissions. The editorial office of the Frontiers in Bioscience requires that permissions are obtained before the figures are submitted for publication. If a previously published figure or table is being used, please add the following comment to the figure legend or table legend: “Reproduced with permission from (ref #). Please do not use any other style for referencing the use of the figures or tables.
  • Please manually number various sections of the document without applying automatic numbering. This includes the table of contents, various parts of text and references.
  • Revise and correct the formatted proof and save it as a Word document and not as a text or any other type of file.
  • Only the properly revised and formatted first galley may be submitted online. No other document will be accepted for publication. Please make all necessary changes in the first galley that not any other document.
  • Following formatting and revision, please do not change the name of the file (temporary manuscript number) and submit the file with the same filename. The corrected galley should be saved as "temporary manuscript number.doc or docx". Do not add, change or use any other file name as the file name is used by programs to capture the necessary information from the first galley.
  • All manuscripts should be submitted online within 48 hours of receiving the first galley. Manuscripts cannot be processed further without strict adherence to the FBS formatting. The corrected galley should not be sent by Email, fax or regular mail. Publication might be delayed in cases that the document is not received on time.
  • Following the submission of the galley, text changes will not be possible without reprocessing the galley. Subsequent to submission of the first galley, please do not submit any additional document. Vendor charges will apply for any additional changes or any other version of the first proof after the first revised proof has been received. If making changes after submission of the first proof is required, request reprocessing of the document by clicking here.
  • There is a withdrawal fee ($1295) and no refund is issued for publication fees for manuscripts that are withdrawn after acceptance.
Submission of doi.doc or doi.docx:

CrossRef (http://www.crossref.org) is the official DOI (digital object identifier) registration agency for scholarly and professional publications which allows connection of references for ease of retrieval. CrossRef operates a cross-publisher citation linking system that allows a researcher to click on a reference citation on one publisher’s platform and link directly to the cited content on another publisher’s platform. At the present time, CrossRef citation-linking network covers millions of articles and other content items from several hundred scholarly and professional publishers.

Frontiers in Bioscience has joined other eminent journals to be part of the CrossRef linking. CrossRef requires that all online publications bear a DOI-linked reference. In order to obtain a CrossRef link for this manuscript, please note that now each manuscript should have, in addition, to the regular references, a set of DOI-linked references. The following information is provided as how to obtain and provide DOI linked references.
    Use the following steps to obtain DOI-linked references online:
  • Access the simple query box of CrossRef at http://www.crossref.org/freeTextQuery.
  • In the registration box enter “fbs@bioscience.org”
  • Copy a set of references (10240 characters or about 45-50 references).
  • Paste the references inside the query box.
  • Click “Submit” button. After a delay of about 30 seconds, the list of references will be returned with DOI numbers with live links appearing after each reference.
  • Copy the results
  • Paste the results in a new blank file. Do not paste as text. Press Control + V to paste it in its native format that maintains the links.
  • Continue this process until all references are processed.
  • References that are not found within the CrossRef database will be listed as “No DOI found” or “References not parsed.” This will be expected. Do not alter or remove these references from the list. The “No DOI found” or “References not parsed.”, however, should be removed from the list.
  • Do not include the DOI-linked references as the reference list in the first galley.
  • Please include the DOI-linked references with live links in a file separate from the first galley. Save this file as doi.doc or doi.docx. Please do not use any other filename as the name will be used to extract information from this filename by specialized programs.
    Use the following steps if you wish the DOI-linked references to be emailed to you:
  • Open the first galley.
  • Make sure that the references are manually numbered and that there is one reference per line (no line breaks within a reference).
  • Do not use special characters since such characters (accent grave, umlauts, etc.) may not be displayed in the result.
  • Copy all the references to the clipboard.
  • Make a new file and paste the references into the file.
  • Save document as a "Text Document" called doi.txt. Word (doc extension) or PDF files (PDF extension) is not accepted.
  • Go to http://www.crossref.org/stqUpload/.
  • At the CrossRef site, click on “Choose File” button, find doi.txt and highlight the file name.
  • In the “Email box, enter your Email.
  • Click the "Submit" button.
  • The DOI-linked ref will be emailed in 15 minutes to the email address entered into the form.
Sample with correct formatting (ref is linked to the source):
1. M. P. Abbracchio, G. Burnstock: Purinoceptors: are there families of P2X and P2Y purinoceptors? Pharmacol.Ther. 64, 445-475 (1994)
doi:10.1016/0163-7258(94)00048-4

2. G. Burnstock, C. Kennedy: Is there a basis for distinguishing two types of P2-purinoceptor? Gen.Pharmacol. 16, 433-440 (1985)
doi:10.1016/0306-3623(85)90001-1
Submission of figures (as fig1.jpg etc.):
  • If a figure has been previously published, please obtain permission from publisher and then add the comment "Reproduced with permission from, (reference number)." to the legend.
  • Figures should be submitted as high resolution files (at least 300 dpi). Any previously published figure that is scanned, is low quality or has blurred image or text should be re-created and submitted as a high quality-high resolution file. Figures that do not have sufficient resolution, or clarity cannot be used for publication.
  • Figures with a dark or black background do not display or print well. Submit figures with a bright or white background.
  • For bar graphs use white, black and shades of gray. Do not use any other style such as hashed bar graphs, etc.
  • For bar graphs, provide X and Y axis legend.
  • If available provide figures in color.
  • Avoid using various types of fonts, or sizes in any figure. Use the same type of font. Use “Arial font size 10” in all figures. If multiple fonts are required, they all should be clearly visible when reduced to the journal page size.
  • Multi-part figures should be submitted as one figure with one figure placed on the top of the other.
  • Do not leave any white space around or between different parts of the figure. Place all figures with the least amount of white space between them.
  • Do not place figure legend, a title, figure number, or author’s name within any figure. Titles can be added to the figure legend if required. Legends must be included at the end of the document as a text.
  • Do not box any bar graph or figure.
  • In multi-part figures, place labels such as "A", "B" etc. in the left lower corner of each figure. If there are more than two parts to the figure put them in two column format with part A above B and C to the right of A and on the top of D
  • Please cite references within the figure legends by their numbers.
  • Save and submit figures as jpg files.
  • Please number figures as follows fig1.jpg, fig2.jpg. Do not other style of naming such as Fig1, Fig 1, Figure 1, FIG1, and do not include the jpg extension in the figure file name such as fig1.jpg. jpg is an extension and not part of the figure name.
  • Do not submit figures in any other file format such as PDF, PowerPoint, Word, TIF, GIF, etc.
  • Figures that do not follow the above guidelines cannot be used for document processing or cost of figure processing will be charged to the author.


View information on single item orders, including reprocessing and editing, post-publication information, depositing the document in NIH repository and publication status:

Requesting Single Items and Reprocessing

The items below can be selected during or after publication.
  • PDF
  • Reprint
  • Subscription
  • Editing
  • FastTrack
  • Express open access
  • Open access
  • Next publication date
  • Reprocessing. No text changes can be requested in the pre-publication PDF. All text changes following receipt of the first galley by this office will require reprocessing.

Publication and Indexing Dates

Publication dates: April, October. The "online publication date “is the date that the manuscript appears online in the Current Issue and Special Issue. This date is normally about two months prior to indexing date. The minimum publication lead time is 6 months. Each manuscript is assigned a unique web address upon publication. The web address is the URL of the document. Manuscripts generally will become available online prior to publication/citation date.
Each published manuscript can be cited as: [Front Biosci Volume, page-page, Month 1, Year]
Example:
Is insulin resistance a disorder of the brain? Undurti N. Das, Gaston Repossi, Alejandro Dain, Aldo Renato Eynard. Front Biosci16, 1-12, January 1, 2011

Indexing dates: January, June. The "indexing date" is the date that the manuscript appears in PubMed and other indexing services on January 1 or June 1 of each year. Two months prior to indexing date, authors receive a notice for checking the PubMed entry. All corrections must be made online at least 15 days prior to submission of entries to PubMed. No corrections after the due date will be accepted. Frontiers in Bioscience publications are indexed by the National Library of Medicine, Index Medicus and Medline, Current Contents, Current Web Contents, BIOSIS, Chemical Abstracts Service, and CrossRef. All manuscripts published in the Frontiers in Bioscience acquire a PubMed number on the first day of indexing (Jan. 1 or June 1).

Special Access

FastTrack Access (FTA): Document is published ahead of the publication date in the "FastTrack Platform."

Express Open Access (EOA): Document is published in "Express Open Access Platform" and is open to the public from publication date to the indexing date.

Open Access (OA): Document is published in "Open Access Platform" and is open to the public from the date of indexing of the article in PubMed.

Depositing Manuscripts in NIH Repository

In response to the notice "Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information: by NIH," Frontiers in Bioscience will permit un-copyedited manuscripts that gain support from NIH to be included in PMC provided that the following statement is included in the author's manuscript:

This is an un-copyedited author manuscript that has been accepted for publication in the Frontiers in Bioscience. Cite this article as it appears in the Journal of Frontiers in Bioscience. Full citation can be found by searching the Frontiers in Bioscience (Search for articles ) following publication and at PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&DB=pubmed) following indexing. This article may not be duplicated or reproduced, other than for personal use or within the rule of "Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials" (section 107, Title 17, U.S. Code) without permission of the copyright holder, the Frontiers in Bioscience. From the time of acceptance following peer review, the full final copy edited article of this manuscript will be made available at https://www.bioscience.org/. The Frontiers in Bioscience disclaims any responsibility or liability for errors or omissions in this version of the un-copyedited manuscript or in any version derived from it by the National Institutes of Health or other parties.
Suggested readings:
  1. Kaufman-Willis Group LLC, The facts about Open Access (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers, Wothing, West Sussex, UK 2005; http://www.alpsp.org/publications/pub11.htm and http://www.alpsp.org/publications/FAOAcompleteREV.pdf
  2. John E. Enderby: Considering Multiple Flavors. Science 312, 200, 2006; http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/312/5771/200 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1125228