Whole Blood, Serum And Plasma Chemistry
 

TYPICAL REFERENCE INTERVALS

COMPONENT

SYSTEM

CONVENTIONAL UNITS

FACTOR

RECOMMENDED SI UNITS

Acetoacetic Acid

Qualitative

Quantitative

 

Serum

Serum

 

Negative

0.2-1.0 mg/dL

 

---

97.95

 

Negative

20-100 mmol/L

Acetone

Qualitative

Quantitative

 

Serum

Serum

 

Negative

0.3-2.0 mg/dL

 

---

172.95

 

Negative

20-340 mmol/L

Albumin

Qualitative

 

Serum

 

3.2-4.5 g/dL(salt fractionation)

3.2-5.6 g/dL(electrophoresis)

3.8-5.0 g/dL (dye binding)

 

10

 

32-45 g/L

32-56 g/L

38-50 g/L

Alcohol, ethyl

Serum or Whole Blood

Negative--but presented as mg/dL

0.2171

Negative --but present as mmol/L

Aldolase

Serum

adults

children

newborn

 

3-8 Sibley-Lehninger U/dL at 37 oC

Approximately 2 times adult levels

Approximately 4 times adult levels

 

7.4

 

22-59 mU/L at 37oC

Approximately 2 times adult levels

Approximately 4 times adult levels

a -Amino acid nitrogen

Serum

3.6-7.0 U/dL

0.7139

2.6-5.0 mmol/L

d- Aminolevulinic acid

Serum

0.01-0.03mg/dL

76.26

0.8-2.3mmol/L

Ammonia

Plasma

20-120 mg/dL(diffusion)

40-80 mg/dL(enzymatic method)

12-48 mg/dL(resin method)

0.5872

12-70 m mol/L

23-47 mmol/L

7-28 mmol/L

Amylase

Serum

16-120 Somogyi units/dL

1.85

30-220 U/L

Argininosuccinate lyase

Serum

0-4 U/dL

10

0-40 U/L

Arsenic++

Whole blood

<7 mg/dL

0.05055

<0.4 mmol/L

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)

Plasma

Whole blood

0.6-1.6 mg/dL

0.7-2.0 mg/dL

56.78

34-91 mmol/L

40-114 mmol/L

Barbiturates

Serum, Plasma or Whole blood

Negative

---

Negative

Base excess

Whole blood

Male

Female

 

-3.3 to +1.2 mEq/L

-2.4 to +2.3 mEq/L

 

1

 

-3.3 to +1.2 mmol/L

-2.4 to +2.3 mmol/L

Base, total

Serum

145-160 mEq/L

1

145-160 mmol/L

Bicarbonate

Plasma

21-28 mmol/L

1

21-28 mmol/L

Bile acids

Serum

0.3-3.0 mg/dL

10

3.0-30.0 mg/L

Bilirubin

Direct (conjugated)

Indirect (unconjugated)

Total

Newborns Total

Serum

 

<0.3 mg/dL

0.1-1.0 mg/dL

0.1-1.2 mg/dL

1.0-12.0 mg/dL

 

17.10

 

<5 mmol/L

2-17 mmol/L

2-21 mmol/L

17-205 mmol/L

Blood Gases

PH

Pco2

Po2

 

Whole Blood

Whole Blood

Whole Blood

 

7.38-7.44 (arterial)

7.36-7.41(venous)

35-40mm Hg (arterial)

40-45mm Hg (venous)

95-100mm Hg(arterial)

 

1

0.1333

0.1333

 

7.38-7.44

7.36-7.41

4.7-5.3 kPa

5.3-6.0 kPa

12.7-13.3 kPa

Bromide

Serum

<5 mg/dL

0.125

<0.63 mmol/L

Calcium

Ionized

 

Total

 

Serum

 

Serum

 

4.0-4.8 mg/dL

2.0-2.4 mEq/L

30-58% of total

9.2-11.0 mg/dL

4.6-5.5 mEq/L

 

0.2500

0.5000

0.01

0.2500

0.5000

 

1.00-1.20 mmol/L

0.30-1.58 of total

2.30-2.74 mmol/L

Carbon Dioxide(CO2 content)

Whole Blood (arterial)

Plasma or Serum (arterial)

19-24 mmol/L

21-28 mmol/L

 

1

19-24 mmol/L

21-28 mmol/L

Carbon Dioxide

Whole blood (venous)

Plasma or Serum(venous)

22-26 mmol/L

24-30 mmol/L

1

22-26 mmol/L

24-30 mmol/L

CO2 combining power

Plasma or Serum(venous)

24-30 mmol/L

1

24-30 mmol/L

CO2 partial pressure (Pco2)

Whole Blood (arterial)

Whole Blood (venous)

35-40 mm Hg

40-45 mm Hg

0.1333

4.7-5.3 kPa

5.3-6.0 kPa

Carbonic acid (H2CO3)

Whole Blood (arterial)

Whole Blood (venous)

Plasma (venous)

1.05-1.45 mmol/L

1.15-1.50 mmol/L

1.02-1.38 mmol/L

1

1.05-1.45 mmol/L

1.15-1.50 mmol/L

1.02-1.38bmmol/L

Carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide hemoglobin)

Whole blood

suburban nonsmokers

smokers

heavy smokers

 

<1.5% saturation of hemoglobin

1.5-5.0% saturation

5.0-9.0% saturation

 

0.01

 

Fraction hemoglobin saturated: <0.015

0.015-0.050

0.050-0.090

Carotene beta

Serum

40-200Fg/dL

0.01863

0.73.7 mmol/L

Ceruloplasmin

Serum

23-50 mg/dL

10

230-500 mg/L

Chloride

Serum

95-103 mEq/L

1

95-103mmol/L

Cholesteral

Total

Esters

 

Serum

Serum

 

150-250 mg/dL (varies with diet, sex, and age)

65-75% of total cholesterol

 

0.02586

0.01

 

3.88-6.47 mmol/L

Fraction of total cholesterol: 0.65-0.75

Cholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase)

Erythrocytes

Plasma

0.65-1.3 pH units

0.5-1.3 pH units

8-18 U/L at 37EC

1

1

0.65-1.3 pH units

0.5-1.3 pH units

8-18 U/L at 37EC

Citrate

Serum or Plasma

1.7-3.0 mg/dL

52.05

88-156 mmol/L

Copper

Serum or Plasma

Male

Female

 

70-140 Fg/dL

80-155 Fg/dL

 

0.1574

 

11-22 mmol/L

13-24 mmol/L

Cortisol

Plasma

8am-10am

4pm-6pm

 

5-23 Fg/dL

3-13 Fg/dL

 

27.59

 

138-635 nmol/L

83-359 nmol/L

Creatine

Serum or Plasma

Male

Female

 

0.1-0.4 mg/dL

0.2-0.7 mg/dL

 

76.25

 

8-31 mmol/L

15-53 mmol/L

Creatine kinase(CK)

Serum

Male

Female

 

55-170 U/L at 37EC

30-135 U/L at 37EC

 

1

1

 

55-170 U/L at 37EC

30-135 U/L at 37EC

Creatinine

Serum or Plasma

0.6-1.2 mg/dL (adult)

0.3-0.6 mg/dL (children <2y)

88.40

53-106 mmol/L

27-53 mmol/L

Creatinine clearence (endogenous)

Serum or Plasma and Urine

Male

Female

 

 

107-139 mL/min

87-107 mL/min

 

 

0.01667

 

 

1.78-2.32 mL/s

1.45-1.78 mL/s

Cryoglobulins

Serum

Negative

---

Negative

Electrophoresis, protein

Albumin

Alpha-1

Alpha-2

Beta

Gamma

Albumin

Alpha-1

Alpha-2

Beta

Gamma

Serum

 

 

 

 

Serum

 

 

52-65% of total protien

2.5-5.0% of total protien

7.0-13.0% of total protien

8.0-14.0% of total protien

12.0-22.0% of total protien

Concentration

3.2-5.6 g/dL

0.1-0.4 g/dL

0.4-1.2 g/dL

0.5-1.1 g/dL

0.5-1.6 g/dL

 

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

10

 

Fraction of total protien: 0.52-0.65

0.025-0.05

0.07-0.13

0.08-0.14

0.12-0.22

32-56 gL

1-4 gL

4-12 gL

5-11 gL

5-16 gL

Fats, nuetral (see Triglycerides)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fatty Acids

Total (free and esterified)

Free (nonesterified)

 

Serum

Plasma

 

9-15 mmol/L

300-480 FEq/L

 

1

1

 

9-15 mmol/L

300-480 mmol/L

Ferritin

Male

Female

 

 

15-200ng/mL

12-150 ng/mL

 

1

1

 

15-200 mg/L

15-150 mg/L

Fibrinogen

Plasma

200-400 mg/dL

0.01

2.00-4.00 g/L

Fluoride

Whole Blood

<0.05 mg/dL

0.5263

<0.027 mmol/L

Folate

Serum

Erythrocytes

5-25 ng/mL(bioassay)

>2.3 ng/mL (radioassay)

166-640 ng/mL (bioassay)

>140 ng/mL (radioassay)

2.266

11-57 nmol/L

>5nmol/L

376-1450 nmol/L

>317 nmol/L

Galactose

Whole Blood

Adults

Children

 

None

<20 mg/dL

 

 

0.05551

 

None

<1.11 mmol/L

Gamma globulin

Serum

0.5-1.6 g/dL

10

5-16 g/L

Globulins, total

Serum

2.3-3.5 g/dL

10

23-35 g/L

Glucose, fasting

Serum or Plasma

Whole Blood

70-110 mg/dL

60-100 mg/dL

0.05551

3.9-6.1 mmol/L

3.3-5.6 mmol/L

Glucose tolerance

Oral

 

 

 

 

Intravenous

Serum or Plasma

Fasting

30 min

60 min

120 min

180 min

Serum or Plasma

Fasting

30 min

60 min

120 min

180 min

 

70-110 mg/dL

30-60 mg/dL above fasting

20-50 mg/dL above fasting

5-15 mg/dL above fasting

Fasting level or below

70-110mg/dL

Maximum of 250 mg/dL

Significant decrease

Below 120 mg/dL

Fasting level

 

0.05551

 

3.9-6.1 mmol/L

1.7-3.3 mmol/L above fasting

1.1-2.8 mmol/L above fasting

0.3-0.8 mmol/L above fasting

Fasting level or below

3.9-6.1 mmol/L

Maximum of 13.9 mmol/L

Significant decrease

Below 6.7 mmol/L

Fasting level

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)

Erythrocytes

250-5000 units/ 106cells

1200-2000 mIU/mL packed erythrocytes

1

1

250-5000 munits/cell

1200-2000 U/L packed erythrocytes

g-Glutamyltransferase

Serum

5-40 IU/L

1

5-40 U/L at 37EC

Glutathione

Whole Blood

24-37 mg/dL

0.03254

0.78-1.20 mmol/L

Growth hormone

Serum

<10 ng/mL

1

<10mg/L

Guanase

Serum

<3 nmol/mL/min

1

<3 U/L at 37EC

Haptoglobin

Serum

60-270 mg/dL

0.01

0.6-2.7 g/L

Hemoglobin

Serum or Plasma

Qualitative

Quantitative

Whole Blood

Female

Male

 

Negative

0.5-5.0 mg/dL

12.0-16.0 g/dL

13.5-18.0 g/dL

 

---

10

10

 

 

Negative

5-50 mg/L

120-160 g/L

135-180 g/L

a-Hydoxybutyrate dehydronase

Serum

140-350 U/mL

1

140-350 kU/L

17- Hydroxycorticosteroids

Plasma

Male

Female

After 24 USP

Units of ACTH

I.M.

 

7-19 Fg/dL

9-21 Fg/dL

 

35-55 Fg/dL

 

25.591

 

193-524 nmol/L

248-579 nmol/L

 

966-1517 nmol/L

Immunoglobulins:

IgG

IgA

IgM

IgD

IgE

Serum

 

800-1801 mg/dL

113-563 mg/dL

54-222 mg/dL

0.5-3.0 mg/dL

0.01-0.04 mg/dL

 

0.01

 

10

 

8.0-18.0 g/L

1.1-5.6 g/L

0.5-2.2 g/L

5.0-30.0 mg/L

0.1-0.4 mg/L

Insulin

Plasma

Bioassay

Radioumunoassay

 

11-240 FIU/mL

4-24 FIU/mL

 

7.175++

 

79-1722 pmol/L

29-172 pmol/L

Insulin tolerance (0.1 unit/kg)

Serum

Fasting

30 min

90 min

 

Glucoseof 70-110 mg/dL

Fall to 50% of fasting level

Fasting level

 

0.05551

0.01

 

Glucose of 3.9-6.1 mmol/L

Fall to 0.5 of fasting level

Fasting level

Iron, total

Serum

60-150 Fg/dL

0.1719

10.7-26.9 mmol/L

Iron-binding capacity

Serum

250-400 Fg/dL

0.1719

44.8-71.6mmol/L

Iron Saturation

Serum

20-55%

0.01

Fraction of total iron-biding capacity :

0.20-0.55

Isocitric dehydrogenase

Serum

50-240 units/mL at 25EC

(Wolfson-Williams Ashman units)

0.0166

0.83-4.18 U/L at 25EC

Ketone bodies

Serum

Nagative

---

Negative

17- Ketosteroids

Plasma

25-125 Fg/dL

34.67W

866-4334 nmol/L

Lactic acid (as lactate)

Whole Blood

Venous

Arterial

 

5-20 mg/dL

3-7 mg/dL

 

0.1110

 

0.6-2.2 mmo/L

0.3-0.8 mmol/L

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)

Serum

(lactate6pyruvate) 80-120 units at 30EC

pyruvate6lactate)185-640 units at 30EC

lactate6pyruvate) 100-190 U/L at 37EC

0.48

 

 

1

38-62 U/L at 30EC

90-310 U/L at 30EC

100-190 U/L at 37EC

Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes

LD1 (anode)

LD2

LD3

LD4

LD5 (cathode)

Serum

 

 

17-27%

27-37%

18-25%

3-8%

0-5%

 

 

0.01

 

 

Fraction of total LD

0.017-0.27

0.27-0.37

0.18-0.25

0.03 -0.08

0.00-0.05

Lactate Dehydrogenase (heat stable)

Serum

30-60% of total

0.01

Fraction of total LD: 0.30-060

Lactose tolerance

Serum

Serum glucose changes similar to glucose tolerance tests

---

Serum glucose changes similar to glucose tolerance test

Lead

Whole blood

<50 Fg/dL

0.04826

<2.41 mmol/L

Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP)

Serum

Male

Female

 

80-200 U/mL (Goldbarg-Rutenberg)

75-185 U/mL (Goldbarg-Rutenberg)

 

0.24

 

19.2-48.0 U/L

18.0-44.4 U/L

Lipase

Serum

0-1.5 U/mL (Cherry-Crandall)

14-280 mIU/mL

278

1

0-417 U/L

14-280 U/L

Lipids, total

Cholesterol

Triglycerides

Phospholipids

Fatty acids (free)

Phospholipid phosphorus

Serum

400-800 mg/dL

150-250 mg/dL

10-90 mg/dL

150-380 mg/dL

9.0-15.0 mmol/L

8.0-11.0 mg/dL

0.01

0.02586

0.01129**

0.01

1

0.3229

4.00-8.00 g/L

3.88-6.47 mmol/L

0.11-2.15 mmol/L

1.50-3.80 g/L

9.0-15.0 mmol/L

2.58-3.55 mmol/L

Lithium

therapeutic interval

Serum

Negative

0.5-1.4 mEq/L

---

1

Negative

0.5-1.4 mmol/L

Long-acting thyroid-stimulating hormone (LATS)

Serum

None detected

---

None detected

 

Luteinizing hormone(LH)

Serum

Male

Female

 

6-30 mIU/mL

Midcycle peak: 3 times baseline value

Premenopausal <30 mIU/mL

Postmenopausal>35 mIU/mL

 

1

 

6-30 IU/L

Midcycle peak: 3 times baseline value

Premenopausal <30 IU/L

Postmenopausal>35 IU/L

Macrogobulins, total

Serum

70-430 mg/dL

0.01

0.7-4.3 g/L

Methemoglobin

Whole Blood

<0.24 g/dL

<1% of total hemoglobin

10

0.01

<2.4 g/L

Fraction of total hemoglobin <0.01

Mucoprotien

Serum

80-200 mg/dL

0.01

0.8-2.0 g/L

Muramidase

Serum

4-13 mg/L

 

 

4-13 mg/L

Myoglobin

Serum

<90 Fg/L

 

 

<90 mg/L

Nonprotien nitrogen (NPN)

Serum or Plasma

Whole Blood

20-35 mg/dL

25-50 mg/dL

0.7139

14.3-25.0 mmol/L

17.8-35.7 mmol/L

5'- Nucleotidase

Serum

0-1.6 units at 37EC

1

0-1.6 units at 37EC

Ornithine carbamyl transferase

Serum

8-20 mIU/mL at 37EC

1

8-20 U/L at 37EC

Osmoality

Serum

280-295 mOsm/kg

1

280-295 mmol/kg

Oxygen

Pressure (Po2)

Content

Saturation

 

Whole Blood (arterial)

Whole Blood (arterial)

Whole Blood (arterial)

 

95-100 mm Hg

15-23 volume %

94-100%

 

0.1333

0.01

 

12.7-13.3 kPa

Volume fraction: 0.15-0.23

Fraction saturated: 0.94-1.00

pH

Whole Blood (arterial)

Whole Blood (venous)

Serum or Plasma (venous)

7.38-7.44

7.36-7.41

7.35-7.45

1

7.38-7.44

7.36-7.41

7.35-7.45

Phenylalanine

Serum

Adults

Newborns (term)

 

<3.0 mg/dL

1.2-3.5 mg/dL

 

60.54

 

<182 mmmol/L

73-212 mmmol/L

Phosphatase

Acid phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase

 

Serum

Serum

 

0.13-0.63 U/L at 37EC

(p-nitrophenylophophate)

20-130 IU/L at 37EC

(p-nitrophenylophophate in AMP buffer)

 

16.67

1

 

2.2-10.5 U/L at 37EC

20-130 U/L at 37EC

Phospholipid phosphorus

see (Lipids, total)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phospholipids

see (Lipids, total)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phosphorus, inorganic

Serum

Adults

Children

 

2.3-4.7 mg/dL

4.0-7.0 mg/dL

 

0.3229

 

0.74-1.52 mmol/L

1.29-2.26 mmol/L

Potassium

Plasma

3.8-5.0 mEq/L

1

3.8-5.0 mmol/L

Prolactin

Serum

Female

Male

 

1-25 ng/mL

1-20 ng/mL

 

1

 

1-25 mg/L

1-20 mg/L

Protiens

Total

Albumin

Globulin

Serum

 

6.0-7.8 g/dL

3.2-4.5 g/dL

2.3-3.5 g/dL

 

10

 

60-78 g/L

32-45 g/L

23-35 g/L

Protien fractionation

 

 

See electophoresis

 

 

See electrophoresis

Protoporphyrin

Erythrocytes

15-50 mg/dL

0.01777

0.27-0.89 mmol/L

Pyruvate

Whole Blood

0.3-0.9 mg/dL

113.6

34-102 mmol/L

Salicylates

Therapeutic interval

Serum

Negative

15-30 mg/dL

---

0.07240

negative

1.08-2.17 mmol/L

Sodium

Plasma

136-142 mEq/L

1

136-142 mmol/L

Sulfate, inorganic

Serum

0.2-1.3 mEq/L

0.9-6.0 mg/dL as SO4

0.5

0.1042

0.10-0.65 mmol/L

0.09-0.63 mmol/L as SO4

Sulfhemoglobin

Whole Blood

Negative

---

Negative

Sulfonamides

Serum or Whole Blood

Negative

---

Negative

Testosterone

Serum or Plasma

Male

Female

 

300-1200 ng/dL

30-95 ng/dL

 

0.03467

 

10.4-41.6nmol/L

1.0-3.3 nmol/L

Thiocyanate

Serum

Negative

---

Negative

Thyroid hormone tests

Thyroxine, total (T4)

Thyroxine, free (FT4)

T3 resin uptake

Thyroxine binding globulin (TBG)

Thyrotropin (TSH)

Triiodothyronine (T3)

Serum

 

 

Serum

Serum

 

5.5-12.5 Fg/dL

0.9-2.3 ng/dL

25-38 relative % uptake

10-26 Fg/dL

0.5-5 FIU/mL

80-200 mg/dL

 

12.87

12.87

0.01

10

 

0.0154

 

17-161 nmol/L

12-30 pmol/L

Relative uptake fraction: 0.25-0.38

100-260 mg/L

0.5-5 mIU/mL

1.23-3 of nmol/L

Transferasis

Aspartate amino transferase (AST or SGOT)

Alanine amino transferase(ALT or SGPT)

Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)

 

Serum

 

Serum

 

 

 

 

8-33 U/L at 37EC

 

4-36 U/L at 37EC

 

5-40 IU/L 37EC

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

8-33 U/L at 37EC

 

4-36 U/L at 37EC

 

5-40 IU/L 37EC

Triglycerides

Serum

10-190 mg/dL

0.01129**

0.11-2.15 mmol/L

Troponin I

Serum

0-0.6 mg/ml

 

 

0-0.6 mg/L

Troponin T

Serum

0-0.1 Fmg/L

 

 

0-0.1 mg/L

Urea nitrogen

Serum

8-23 mg/dL

0.357

2.9-8.2 mmol/L

Urea clearance

Maximum clearance

Standard clearance

Serum and Urine

 

64-99 mL/min

41-65 mL/min, or more than 75% of normal clearance

 

0.01667

 

1.07-1.65 L/s

0.68-1.08 L/s or more than 0.75 of normal clearance

Uric acid

Serum

Male

Female

 

4.0-8.5 mg/dL

2.7-7.3 mg/dL

 

0.05948

 

0.24-0.51 mmol/L

0.16-0.43 mmol/L

Vitamin A

Serum

15-60 Fg/dL

0.03491

0.52-2.09mmol/L

Vitamin A tolerance

Serum

Fasting 3h or 6h after 5000 units Vitamin A/kg

24h

 

15-60 Fg/dL

200-600 Fg/dL

Fasting values or slightly above

 

0.03491

 

---

 

0.52-2.09mmol/L

6.98-20.95 mmol/L

Fasting values or slightly above

Vitamin B12

Serum

160-950 pg/ml

0.7378

118-701 pmol/L

Unsaturated vitamin B12 -binding capacity

Serum

1000-2000 pg/ml

0.7378

738-1475 pmol/L

Vitamin C

Plasma

0.6-1.6 mg/dL

56.78

34-91 mmol/L

Xylose absorption

Serum

Normal

In malabsorbtion

 

25-40 mg/dL between 1 and 2h

Maximum approximately 10 mg/dL

Dose: adult 25 g D-xylose

Children 0.5 g D-xylose/kg

 

0.06661

 

1.67-2.66 mmol/L between 1 and 2 h

Maximum approximately 0.67 mmol/L

Zinc

Serum

50-150 Fg/dL

0.1530

7.7-23.0 mmol/L