Urine reference intervals

 

TYPICAL REFERENCE INTERVALS
COMPONENT SYSTEM CONVENTIONAL UNITS FACTOR RECOMMENDED SI UNITS
Acetoacetic acid Random Negative -- Negative
Acetone Random Negative -- Negative
Addis count 12 h collection      
    WBC and epithelial cells: 1,800,000/12 h 1 1.8 x 106/12h
    RBC 500,000/12 h 1 0.5 x 106/12h
    Hyaline casts: <5000/12 h 1 <5.0 x 103/12 h
Albumin

 

 

 

 

Qualitative Random Negative -- Negative
Quantitative 24 h 15-150 mg/d 0.001 0.015-0.150 g/d
Aldosterone 24 h 2-26 mg/d 2.774 6-72 nmol/d
Alkapton bodies Random Negative -- Nagative

a

24 h 100-290 mg/d 0.07139 7.1-20.7 mmol/d

d

24 h      
  Random 0.1-0.6 mg/dl 76.26 8-46 mmol/L
  Adult <o.5 mg/dL 7.626 <38 mmol/L
  Children 1.5 - 7.5 mg/d   11-57 mmol/d
Ammonia nitrogen 24 h 20-70 mEq/d

500-1200 mg/d

1

0.07139

20-70 mmol/d

35.6-85.7 mmol/d

Amylase 2 h 35-260 Somogyi units/h 0.1850 6.5-48.1 U/h
Arsenic 24 h <50 mg/L 0.01335 <0.67 mmol/L
Ascorbic acid        
  Random 1-7 mg/dL 56.78 57-397 mmol/L
  24 h >50 mg/d 5.678 >284 mmol/d
Bence Jones protien Random Negative -- Negative
Beryllium 24 h < 0.05 mg/d 111.0 <5.555 nmol/d
Bilirubin, qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
Blood, occult Random Negative __ Negative
Borate 24 h <2mg/L 16.44 <32 mmol/L
Calcium

 

 

 

 

Qualitative(Sulkowitch) Random 1 + turbidity 1 1 + turbidity
Quantitative Average diet (24 h) 100-240 mg/d 0.02495 2.5-6.0 mmol/d

 

low calcium diet (24 h) < 150 mg/d

 

 

 

high calcium diet (24 h) 240-300 mg/d

 

 

Catecholamines Random < 14 mg/dL 59.11* <828 nmol/L

 

24 h <100 mg/d (varies with activity) 5.911* <591 nmol/d
Epinephrine

 

<10 ng/d 5.458 <55 nmol/d
Norepinephrine

 

<100 ng/d 5.911 <591 nmol/d
Total free catecholamines

 

4-126 mg/d 5.911* 24-745 nmol/d
Total metanephrines

 

0.1-1.6 mg/d 5.458+ 0.5-8.7 mmol/d
Chloride 24 h 140-250 mEq/d 1 140-250 nmol/d
Concentration test (Fishberg) Random--after fluid restriction      
Specific gravity

 

>1.025 1 >1.025
Osmolality

 

>850 mOsm/kg 1 >850 mmol/kg
Copper 24 h <50 mg/d 0.01574 <0.8 mmol/d
Coproporphyrin

 

 

 

 

 

Random, Adult 3-20 mg/dL 15.27 46-305 nmol/L

 

Adult, 24 hr 50-160 mg/d 1.527 76-244 nmol/d

 

Children, 24 hr <80 mg/d

 

<122 nmol/d
Creatine

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr <40 mg/d 7.625 <305 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr <100 mg/d

higher in children and during pregnancy

-- <763 mmol/d

higher in children and during pregnancy

Creatinine

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 20-26 mg/kg/d

1.0-2.0 g/d

8.840

8.840

177-230 mmol/kg/d

8.8-17.7 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr 14-22 mg/kg/d

0.8-1.8 g/d

8.840

8.840

124-195 mmol/kg/d

7.1-15.9 mmol/d

Cystine, qualitative Random Negative --- Negative
Cystine and cysteine 24 h 10-100 mg/d 4.161 (based on cystine) 42-416 mmol/d
Dehydroepiandrosterone

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 0.2-2 mg/d 3.467 0.7-6.9 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr 0.2-1.8 mg/d

 

0.7-6.2 mmol/d
Diacetic acid Random Negative --- Negative
Epinephrine 24 h <20 mg/d 5.458 <109 nmol/d
Estrogens

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 5-18 mg/d 3.468 (based on estriol) 17-62 nmol/d
Total Female, 24 hr

 

 

 

 

Ovulation 28-100 mg/d 0.003468 97-347 nmol/d

 

Luteal peak 22-80 mg/d 3.468 76-364 nmol/d

 

At menses 4-25 mg/d 3.699 14-87 nmol/d

 

Pregnancy up to 45,000 mg/d 3.671 up to 156 mmol/d

 

Postmenopausal up to 10 mg/d 3.468 up to 35 nmol/d
Fractioned 24 h, nonpregnant, midcycle

 

 

 

Estrone(E1) __ 2-25 mg/d

 

7-93 nmol/d
Estradiol (E2) __ <10 mg/d

 

<37 nmol/d
Estriol(E3) __ 2-30 mg/d

 

7-104 nmol/d
Fat, qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
FIGLU (N-formiminoglutamic acid)

 

 

 

 

 

24 h <3 mg/d 5.740 <17.2 mmol/d

 

after 15g of L-histidine 4 mg/d

 

23.0 mmol/d
Floride 24 h <1 mg/d 52.63 <53 mmol/d
Follicle-simulating hormone (FSH) 24 h

 

 

 

 

Adult 4-25 U/L 1 4-25 IU/L

 

Prepubertal 4-30 U/L 1 4-30 IU/L

 

Postmenopausal 40-50 U/L 1 40-50 IU/L

 

Midcycle 2 x baseline 1 2 x baseline
Fructose 24 h 30-65 mg/d 0.005551 0.17-0.36 mmol/d
Glucose

 

 

 

 

Qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
Quantitative 24 h

 

 

 

Copper-reducing

Substances

 

0.5-1.5 g/d 1 0.5-1.5 g/d
Total sugars

 

average 250 mg/d 1 average 250 mg/d
Glucose

 

average 130 mg/d 0.005551 average 0.72 mmol/d
Gonadotropins, pituary (FSH and LH) 24 h 10-50 U/L 1 10-50 IU/d
Etiocholanolone

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 1.4-5.0 mg/d 3.443 4.8-17.2 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr 0.8-4.0 mg/d

 

2.8-13.8 mmol/d
11-Hydroxyandrosterone

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 0.1-0.8 mg/d 3.263 0.3-2.6 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr <0.5 mg/d

 

<1.6 mmol/d
11-Hydroxyetiocholanolone

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 0.2-0.6 mg/d 3.26 0.7-2.0 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr 0.1-1.1 mg/d

 

0.3-3.63 mmol/d
11-Ketoandrosterone

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 0.2-1.0 mg/d 3.274 0.7-3.3 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr 0.2-0.8 mg/d

 

0.7-2.6 mmol/d
11-Ketoetiocholanolone

 

 

 

 

 

Male, 24 hr 0.2-1.0 mg/d 3.274 0.7-3.3 mmol/d

 

Female, 24 hr 0.2-0.8 mg/d

 

0.7-2.6 mmol/d
Lactose 24 h 14-40 mg/d 2.291 41-117 mmol/d
Lead 24 h <100 mg/d 0.004826 <0.48 mmol/d
Magnesium 24 h 6.0-8.5 mEq/d 0.5000 3.0-4.3 mmol/d
Melanin, qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
Mucin 24 h 100-150 mg/d 1 100-150 mg/d
Muramidase (lysozyme) 24 h 1.3-36 mg/d 1 1.3-36 mg/d
Myoglobin

 

 

 

 

Qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
Quantitative 24 h <4 mg/L 1 <4 mg/L
Osmolality Random 500-800 mOsm/kg water 1 500-800 mmol/kg
Pentoses 24 h 2-5 mg/kg/d 1 2-5 mg/kg/d
pH Random 4.6-8.0 1 4.6-8.0
Phenossulfonphthalein (PSP) Urine timed after 6 mg PSP IV

 

 

 

 

15 min 20-50% dye excreted 0.01 Fraction dye excreted: 0.20-0.50

 

30 min 16-24% dye excreted

 

0.16-0.24

 

60 min 9-17% dye excreted

 

0.09-0.17

 

120 min 3-10% dye excreted

 

0.03-0.10
Phenylpyruvic acid, qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
Phosphorus Random 0.9-1.3 g/d 32.29 29-42 mmol/d
Porphobilinogen

 

 

 

 

Qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
Quantitative 24 h <1.0 mg/d 4.420 4.4 mmol/d
Potassium 24 h 40-80 mEq/d 1 40-80 mmol/d
Pregnancy tests Concentrated morning specimen Positive in normal pregnancies or with tumors producing chorionic gonadotropin __ Positive in normal pregnancies or with tumors producing chorionic gonadotropin
Pregnanediol 24 h

 

 

 

 

Male <1.5 mg/d 3.120 <4.7 mmol/d

 

Female 1-8 mg/d 3.120 3-25 mmol/d

 

Peak 1 week after ovulation

__ 1 week after ovulation

 

Pregnancy

 <50 mg/d

 

 

 

Children Negative

 

<156 mmol/d

Negative

Pregnanetriol 24 h

 

 

 

 

Male 0.4-2.4 mg/d 2.972 1.2-7.1 mmol/d

 

Female 0.5-2.0 mg/d

 

1.5-5.9 mmol/d

Children up to 1 mg/d

up to 3 mmol/d
Protein, qualitative Random Negative __ Negative

 

24 h 40-150 mg/d 1 40-150 mg/d
Reducing substances, total 24 h 0.5-1.5 mg/d 1 0.5-1.5 mg/d
Sodium 24 h 75-200 mEq/d 1 75-200 mmol/d
Solids, total 24 h 55-70 g/d

Decreases with age to 30 g/d

__ 50-70 g/d

Decreases with age to 30 g/d

Specific gravity Random 1.016-1.022(normal fluid intake)

1.001-1.035 (range)

1 Relative density (U 20C/water 20C)

1.016-1.022(normal fluid intake)

1.001-1.035 (range)

 

 

Sugars (excluding glucose) Random Negative __ Negative
Titratable acidity 24 h 20-50 mEq/d 1 20-50 mmol/d
Urea nitrogen 24 h 6-17 g/d 35.70 214-607 mmol/d
Uric acid 24 h 250-750 mg/d 0.005948 1.5-4.5 mmol/d
Urobilinogen        
  2 h 0.3-1.0 Ehrlich units 1 0.3-1.0 U
  24 h 0.05-2.5 mg/d or 0.5-4.0 Erhlich units/d 1.693

1

0.1-4.2 mmol/d

0.5-4.0 U/d

Uropepsin        
  Random 15-45 units/h (Anson) 7.37 111-332 U/h
   

24 h

 

1500-5000 units/d (Anson)

   

11-37 kU/h

Uroporphyrins

 

 

 

 

Qualitative Random Negative __ Negative
Quantitative 25 h 10-30 mg/d 1.204 12-36 nmol/d
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) 24 h 1.5-7.5 mg/d 5.046 7.6-37.9 mmol/d
Volume, total 24 h 600-1600 mL/d 0.001 0.6-1.6 L/d
Zinc 24 h 0.15-1.2 mg/d 15.30 2.3-18.4 mmol/d